Genetic and Biological Foundations

Genetic and Biological Foundations - Psychological Science...

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Psychological Science Michael Gazzaniga and Todd Heatherton Chapter 3: Genetic and Biological Foundations
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Overview of Chapter Questions: - What Is the Genetic Basis of Psychological Science? - How Does the Nervous System Operate? - How Do Neurotransmitters Influence Emotion, Thought, and Behavior? - How Are Neural Messages Integrated into Communication Systems? - How Are Neural Messages Integrated into Communication Systems?
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Overview: What Is the Genetic Basis of Psychological Science? Heredity Involves Passing along Genes through Reproduction Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction Genes Affect Behavior Social and Environmental Contexts Influence Genetic Expression Gene Expression Can Be Modified
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Some Orienting Concepts on Genetics in Psychology: Defining “Genetics”: refers to the effect of genes we inherit from the development of an organism. The role of Chromosomes: 23 pairs. Male contributes 23 and female another 23 chromosomes to make 46 chromosomes. 22 of these 23 are called autosomes while the last pair determine the sex of the organism. XX- female XY-male What Genes are: units of genetic information Status of “The Human Genome Project”: complete.
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Heredity Involves Passing along Genes through Reproduction Gregor Mendel identifies dominant and recessive patterns of inheritance:
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Heredity Involves Passing along Genes through Reproduction (continued) Genotype: genetic makeup of the organism that gets transmitted during conception. Phenotype: the traits you see that the genes express Polygenic Effects: the effect of many genes contributing to a behavior.
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Genotypic Variation Is Created by Sexual Reproduction What determines the genetic uniqueness of individuals? Gametes: sex cells from both parents (haploid) Zygote: a diploid cell after fertilization (new organism) Mutations are experiments in selective advantage Industrial Melanism: moths went from white to gray to camouflage with the tree that also turned gray b/c of pollution and smoke particles. Sickle-Cell Disease: point base mutation that distorts red blood cells and provides immunity to malaria.
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Genes Affect Behavior Behavioral Genetics Methods: Twin Studies Compare MZ and DZ Twins: Adoption Studies: Understanding Heritability: Why is heritability lower when the population is more diverse?
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Influence Genetic Expression African Americans and Hypertension: a controversial theory. Gene expression as concerns child
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Genetic and Biological Foundations - Psychological Science...

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