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Genetics Notes Part II - Genetics Notes Part II The genome...

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Genetics Notes Part II The genome is all the genetic information in a life form or group of life forms. Genomics is the study of the genome including the content of the genetic information, as well as the physical structure and function of this information. An example of the content of the genetic information in a life form is the nucleotide sequence of a particular allele or region of DNA. An example of the physical structure of the genetic information is the location of a locus on a chromosome. An example of the functional genetic information is the role of a locus in the biology of a life form. (Right now 25,000 genes to make a human) Note this in science, every time we develop a new tool and remember concepts are new tools, we can see things about the phenomena that we never saw before which generates new concepts. (Don’t memorize…) In addition to understanding the structure of the genome, it is helpful to know the position of loci for experimental manipulation. Linkage – two or more loci are linked if they are on the same chromosome Linkage reduced the variability of the gametes. The amount of linkage is under evolutionary control. **** (Every aspect of genome is under evolutionary control) Observations that support the hypothesis: to date, any reason of region of chromosomes, we can artificially select to increase or decrease crossing over. Interesting evolution question: Why do some genomes have more linkage than others? Meiotic recombination : Any meiotic process that generates a haploid product with a genotype that differs from both haploid genotypes that constituted the meiotic diploid cell. (What?) The second big mechanism that gives meiotic recombination is crossing over. Crossing over is an actual enzymatic breaking and rejoining of pieces of chromosomes. Usually, the pieces are homologous or nearly homologous. When the loci are linked, crossing over increases the variability of gametes. (Be able to demonstrate that with two metaphase plates) The crossing over between two loci is rare.
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Note: when the recombinants are less than 50%, our hypothesis is that they are linked. They are certainly not assorting independently.
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