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week 6 - Beavers Alligators...

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2/19/2010 1 Beavers http://crocdoc.ifas.ufl.edu/fieldtrip/ft_gatorholes/8_jem_eliza.jpg Alligators The “Wink Sink”, Near Wink, TX Photo: Dwayne Fox (Midland Texas) http://www.swfwmd.state.fl. us/hydrology/sinkholes/ Cenotes http://www.smm.org/sln/ma/formation.html
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2/19/2010 2 Fluvial lakes Fluvial lakes Fluvial lakes St. Lawrence River Meteor impact lakes Saskatchewan, Canada Gow -5 km diameter Deep Bay -13 km diameter Ice dam
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2/19/2010 3 Ice dam Perito Moreno Ice Dam http://glaciar.santacruzpatagonia.gob.ar/ ~4-5 years dam breaks (July 2008) Glacial Lake Missoula Lake Sarez, Tajikistan •Created 1911 •550 m high
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2/19/2010 4 Spirit Lake, Mt St Helens, WA The debris avalanche raised the level of the lake 64 m Castle Lake, WA MARTHA (LAKE MARTHA) LAKE -- SNOHOMISH COUNTY: 1997 Size (acres) 62 Maximum Depth (feet) 70 Mean Depth (feet) 33 Lake Volume (acre-feet) 2046 Drainage Area (square miles) 1.63 Altitude (feet) 186 Shoreline Length (miles) 1.8 Bathymetric map morphometry
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2/19/2010 5 What is the difference between reservoirs and natural lakes? Shoreline development (D L ) D L = 1 D L > 4 A L D L 0 2 π = A r Retention time, residence time, flushing time Lake Tanganyika = 5,500 years Lake Tahoe = 650-700 years Loch Ness = 2.8 years Lake Erie = 2.6 years Lake St Claire = 7days (2-30 days) Pollution? •RT (yr) = lake volume (m 3 ) mean outflow (m 3 /yr)
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2/19/2010 6 stratification thermal salinity Lake Erie http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/image/erie.jpg http://www.great-lakes.net/lakes/ Smallest of the Great Lakes in Volume (119 miles 3 ) 241 mi long, 57 mi wide Avg. depth 62 feet http://www.epa.gov/lakeerie/eriedeadzone.html http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/lakeerie/eriedeadzone.html Terms to know Isothermal Epilimnion Metalimnion/(thermocline) Hypolimnion
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2/19/2010 7 Mixing regimes Dimictic temperate zone lakes, mix twice a year Monomictic – temperate, subtropical lakes, no winter freezing, but become isothermal Amictic – do not mix (Arctic, Antarctic, alpine) Polymictic typically found in tropicalregions Meromictic – rarely mix, contain dissolved compounds in hypolimnion that stabilize density layer Dimictic lake date Monomictic lake http://www.lrh-wc.usace.army.mil/wq/clb_oxy_avg.jpg http://www.lrh-wc.usace.army.mil/wq/clb_oxy_avg.jpg Polymictic lake http://www.esf.edu/efb/schulz/Limnology/Mixing.html Lake Rotorua, NZ http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.09.028
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2/19/2010 8 Meromictic lakes Do not mix This type of lake may form for a number of reasons: the basin is unusually deep and steep-sided compared to the lake's surface area the lower layer of the lake is highly saline and denser than the higher levels of water Soap Lake, WA Saline stratification Subsurface saline flow Lej da San Murezzan, Switzerland Arid regions , evaporation can increase concentration of solutes, fresh river water flowing into lake will remain on top Fjord lakes : rebound/uplift , saline waters below freshwater http://cache.virtualtourist.com/2078486-Lej_da_San_Murezzan-Saint_Moritz.jpg fjord saline Halocline tp://losethegame.com/halocline3.jpg
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2/19/2010 9 Barracuda lake, CoronIsland, Phillipines
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