Lecture Notes Test 1

Lecture Notes Test 1 - Lecture Notes Week 1-4 Freshwater...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture Notes Week 1-4 Freshwater ecology? • What does it mean? • 99 % of freshwater is ice or groundwater (96.5%) • Inland waters _ 1.45 % freshwater lakes _ 1.20 % saline lakes _ 0.01 % rivers _ 0.77% Shallow & deep soil _ 96.56 % groundwater • Limnology vs. freshwater ecology? Limnology • is the study of the structural and functional interrelationships of organisms of inland waters as they are affected by their dynamic physical, chemical, and biotic environment (Wetzel 2001) • closely related to hydrobiology, which is concerned with the application of physics, chemistry, geology, and geography to ecological problems Freshwater ecology • -seeks to understand the relationship between organisms and their environment, & how changes in one part of the system will affect other parts of the system. • “… limnology courses traditionally do not cover wetlands, groundwater, and even streams. Thus this book is titled “Freshwater Ecology.” (Dodds 2002) Water in Texas • 11,247 named streams and rivers • 5,363 square miles of surface water • 191,228 miles streams and rivers. Only 40,194 miles are considered perennial • 10,196 reservoirs larger than 10 acres, cover more than 3.5 million surface acres. • 6.3 million acres are freshwater wetlands • How many lakes?____________ The Source of Water for the High Plains The Texas High Plains region has two primary water sources – Lake Meredith and the Ogallala Aquifer . Lake Meredith is located north of Amarillo, while the Ogallala is a groundwater supply stretching through portions of eight states. Water from the reservoir, along with groundwater from the Ogallala Aquifer in Bailey and Roberts Counties, supplies the water needs of the region. However, the Ogallala is not recharging or replenishing at the rate the groundwater is being pumped. Edwards Aquifer Springs (Comal, San Marcos, Salado, Barton, Hueco, San Antonio, San Pedro, Leona, Los Moras, San Felipe, Goodenough) The seven endangered species of the Edwards Aquifer system are: Fountain Darter ( Etheostoma fonticola) Texas Blind Salamander ( Typhlomolge rathbuni) San Marcos Gambusia ( Gambusia georgei) Texas Wild Rice ( Zizania texana) Comal Springs Riffle Beetle ( Heterelmis comalensis) Comal Springs Dryopid Beetle ( Stygoparnus comalensis) Peck's Cave Amphipod ( Stygobromus pecki) The main problems for all the species are reduced springflows caused by increased pumping, elimination of habitat, and degradation of water quality caused by urban expansion. Land Subsistence Why is water unique? Liquid at normal temperatures • Hydrogen bonding • Surface tension • Polar molecule • Capillary action Density Properties of Water 1. High heat capacity 2. High heat of fusion • (standard enthalpy of fusion, or specific melting heat) 3. High heat of vaporization 4. Surface tension Heat of Fusion …is the amount of thermal energy which must be absorbed or evolved for 1 mole of a...
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course NRM 2305 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Texas Tech.

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Lecture Notes Test 1 - Lecture Notes Week 1-4 Freshwater...

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