Lecture Notes Test 2

Lecture Notes Test 2 - 2305 Test #2 Lakes & Reservoi rs...

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2305 Test #2 High-Flow Experiment from Glen Canyon Dam • 1996, 2004, March 5, 2008 • Water was released through Dam's power-plant and bypass tubes to a maximum amount of approximately 41,500 cubic feet per second for about 60 hours. The experiment was designed to enhance the habitat in the canyon and its wildlife, and learn more about these complex natural systems… Estimated 2.5 million dams in the US (NRC 1992) over 600 decommissioned dams Lakes and reservoirs Pond or lake? • Area, depth or both were an essential part of most definitions, but what area or what depth differed. • Thermal stratification – a lake is a body of water that is deep enough to thermally stratify into 2 or 3 layers during the summer in temperate regions • Plant growth – a pond is shallow enough that sunlight can penetrate to the bottom and support rooted plant growth across its entire width. - shallow lake or pond ”: shallow standing water, light penetrates to the bottom sediments to potentially support rooted plant growth throughout the water body. Lack of thermal stratification and the presence of muddy sediments -" deep lake or pond ”: a shallow shoreline area that may potentially support rooted plant growth and a deeper portion where sunlight does not penetrate to the bottom. Frequently stratify into distinct thermal layers during the summer. Lake formation 1. Tectonic - Graben _-Horst 2. Damming (natural) 3. Glacial activity 4. Volcanic activity 5. Other Tectonic Graben (2 fault lines) and horst(1 fault line) lakes
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Tectonic Lakes: -Great Rift Valley (2 tectonic plates shifting apart) -Lake Tanganyika (2 nd largest lake by volume) -Lake Baikal (Oldest, Deepest, Largest Lake by volume) -Lake Tahoe Glacial activity • Cirque • Paternoster • Kettles/potholes • Terminal moraines Cirque lake or tarn (lake) formation
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Moraine Melting at a glacier margin causes the ice to thin, and ground-up rock debris carried in the base of the ice or dragged along beneath the glacier is deposited. When the ice margin remains in the same place for a relatively long time (tens to hundreds of years), enough debris flows to the glacier's leading edge and piles up to form a large end moraine on the landscape. Volcanic Activity • Caldera (collapse of land following an eruption) or maar (low relief volcanic crader, caused by an explosion of water and lava) lakes
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“Other” lake formation Animals (alligators, bison) Sinkholes Fluvial lakes Meteoric impacts Wind – aerolian lakes Cenotes Fluvial lakes Glacial lakes Ice dams Morphometry (lake depth) Bathymetric map Shoreline development (DL) D L =the amount of shoreline around a lake/reservoir Lakes have a low shoreline development; reservoirs normally have a higher shoreline development (4+) Retention time, residence time, flushing time Lake Tanganyika = 5,500 years
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Loch Ness = 2.8 years Lake Erie = 2.6 years Lake St Claire = 7days (2-30 days)
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course NRM 2305 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Texas Tech.

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Lecture Notes Test 2 - 2305 Test #2 Lakes & Reservoi rs...

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