NRM 2305 Final Review

NRM 2305 Final Review - NRM 2305 Final Review Phylum...

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Unformatted text preview: NRM 2305 Final Review Phylum Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Fishes Tetrapods Amphibians Salamanders (Caudata) Caecilians (Gymnophiona) Frogs (Anurans) Reptiles Birds mammals Fishes Most diverse vertebrates ~24,000 described species, Less than half in FW 3,000 in Amazon, ~1,000 in N. America 3 major groups Jawless (lampreys, hag fish) Chondrichthyes (sharks and rays: Lake Nicaragua shark, bull shark) Osteoichthyes (bony fishes) Obligate freshwater species Diadromous Catadromous : spawn in marine water (eels) Anadromous : spawn in freshwater (salmon, shad, alewife) What is a fish? Gills 2 paired fins Ectothermic (exceptions: billfishes, tunas, shortfin mako, long fin mako, white, porbeagle, salmon shark) Jaw Scales Lays eggs (internal or external fertilization) Fish species and habitats Although fish inhabit nearly every permanent water body, each species has its own distribution and range. The basic requirements for a fishs survival include prey cover suitable water temperature DO levels Fish families Cyprinidae carp and minnows Catostomidae suckers Lepisosteidae gars Clupeidae herrings, shad Ictaluridae North American catfish Esocidae Pikes, mudminnows Fundulidae topminnows Poeciliidae livebearers (mosquitofish, guppies) Cyprinodontidae pupfish Moronidae temperate bass (white, yellow, stripers) Scianenidae drums, croakers (freshwater drum) Centrarchidae sunfish family Cichlidae cichlids (Texas cichlid) Percidae perches (darters, perch, walleye) Cyprinids (carps and minnows) Largest family of fishes Mouths w/o teeth but have Pharyngeal teeth Most only have soft rays (except: carp/goldfish) N. A. ~ 286 species (most are shiners) Notropis & Cyprinella Pharyngeal teeth in drums (Scianenidae) Percidae ~160 species 90% are darters Perches (Perca): yellow perch, European perch Pike-perches (Stizostedion sp): walleye, sauger, zander Darters ~155 sp. predaceous Live on bottom No swim bladder Sexually dimorphic Sunfish family: Centrarchidae 29 freshwater species native only to N. A. Spinous and soft dorsal fins joined Warm-water lakes, sluggish streams Nest builders, with parental care Black basses Micropterus Sunfishes Lepomis Crappies Pomoxis Ictaluridae the North American catfishes bullhead catfishes 49 species endemic to N.A. 4 pairs of barbels Small eyes Flat head No scales Build nests guard young Flathead catfish Bullheads yellow, brown, black Madtoms Channel catfish Blue catfish stonecat Tetrapods Amphibians Anura: Frogs and toads Urodela (caudata): Salamanders/newts Turtles : snapping, map, painted, softshelled Snakes...
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course NRM 2305 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at Texas Tech.

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NRM 2305 Final Review - NRM 2305 Final Review Phylum...

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