Test 1 Notes

Test 1 Notes - Biology of Plants Introduction to Plants A....

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Biology of Plants Introduction to Plants A. A Comparison of Plants and Animals 1. Both are multicellular 2. Plants have cell walls 3. Some plant cells are autotrophic 4. Lack of self mobility-lack of nerves and muscles B. The Value of Plants 1. Food 2. Shelter 3. Medicine 4. Oxygen (produce 21% of gas in atmosphere) 5. Fuel 6. Clothing 7. Reduce soil erosion-help develop soil Plant Structure: Compounds in Plants A. Levels of Plant Structure Atoms (Elements) compose molecules (compounds) 3 most abundant elements in plants: 1. Carbon-C 2. Hydrogen-H 3. Oxygen-O Other important elements: 1. Nitrogen-N 2. Phosphorus-P 3. Sulfur-S Compounds compose cell components
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Cell components compose cells Cells compose tissue Tissues compose organs (root, stem, leaf) Organs compose them plant B. Major Categories of Plant Compounds 1. Water-H 2 O Serves as the medium in which the chemical reactions (metabolism) of life occur Helps support living plant cells Water is used to expand plant cells in growth Water is a transport fluid 2. Carbohydrates-(C:2H:O) ratio equal Uses: energy source, structural cell components especially cell wall for plants Simple Sugars vs. Complex Sugars Simple Carbohydrates: small sugars that cannot be broken down into smaller units (w/out breaking carbon bonds) Glucose: 6 carbons Fructose: 6 carbons *important simple sugars Complex Carbohydrates: form by linking simple sugars together Sucrose: table sugar = glucose + sucrose; 12 carbons, easily broken down by cells Cellulose: = 100 glucose molecules linked in a chain; used to make cell walls, not broken down by cells Starch: a large polymer of thousands of glucose units; used for energy 3. Lipids-(C H O) ratio different and variable Types: oils (stored energy source), waxes (sealants), phospholipids (structural, cell membrane) 1. Phospholipids contain a phosphate group
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2. Oils: structure, organic compounds—glycerol, 3 fatty acids Saturated vs. Unsaturated Lipids Saturated fatty acids-have all the H atoms they can hold A saturated oil is more viscous at a given temperature than an unsaturated Plants in warm climates have more saturated lipids and oils Plants in cool climates have more unsaturated lipids and oils 4. Proteins-(C H O N S) Uses: structural components of cells, enzymes Enzymes: is a catalyst that lowers the amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction Amino acids: any of a large number of compounds found in living cells that contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, and join together to form proteins; Denaturation-making something into a non-normal state (cooking an egg) 5. Nucleic Acids (C H O N P) DNA, RNA Required in the process to make proteins Nucleotide bases, components of a nucleotide = phosphate + a sugar + cytosine
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course BIOL 1401 taught by Professor Holaday during the Spring '08 term at Texas Tech.

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Test 1 Notes - Biology of Plants Introduction to Plants A....

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