hydrologicprocessesonwatersheds

hydrologicprocessesonwatersheds - IV. Hydrologic Processes...

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IV. Hydrologic Processes on Watersheds A. The hydrologic cycle. At this point we need to examine the system with which we are dealing in our efforts to become watershed managers. Our water resource is primarily a flow type resource as opposed to a fund resource. (Groundwater may be a fund or non-renewable resource) The system is often referred to as the hydrologic cycle and involves the flow of water from precipitation to runoff- evaporation, etc. PowerPoint--The Hydrologic Cycle (as a diagram)-- PowerPoint--The Hydrologic Cycle (as a flowchart)-- Handouts: Hydrologic cycle pictograph, Realms of Water, Storage and the Hydrologic Cycle, Hydrologic Processes and Physical Relationships Basic to Watershed Management This cycle may be divided into four major functional parts and expressed as an equation or model. PowerPoint--The Hydrologic Cycle(as a functional model)-- PowerPoint--Flowchart of functional model--
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P= RO + ET ± S RO= P – ET ± S P is precipitation RO is runoff ET is evaporation and transpiration S is storage PowerPoint--Precipitation, Infiltration, and Runoff-- PowerPoint--Soil Water and Ground Water-- PowerPoint--Artesian Wells-- PowerPoint--Hydrologic Cycle Renewal Times-- B. The driving force behind the hydrologic cycle is energy received from solar radiation. Before we begin an in-depth discussion and study of each of the elements of the hydrologic cycle, we will consider the energy exchange processes which enable the cycle to function. Handout: Hydrologic Processes on the Watershed
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As a basis to begin our discussions of energy exchanges we might consider the energy balance concept described in the following formula: PowerPoint--Energy Balance Concept-- S o + T + L + G + C + S t = O S o = Solar radiation T= Thermal radiation L= Latent heat G= Conduction C= Convection S t = Storage Solar radiation is the primary source of input to the earth’s energy balance system. Based upon physical laws of radiation potentials (Stefan- Boltzman Law J= T 4 (J= total intensity of radiation; =Stefan Boltzman Constant 1.32 x 10 -12 cal per cm 2 per °k 4 per sec; T= temperature °Kelvin) and distances from the source; the earth’s surface could receive 2.0 cal/cm 2 /min (called solar constant) from the sun. (However, it is less due to atmosphere.) Factors decreasing amount received: 1. Atmosphere thickness and density 2. Atmospheric pollutants, etc. 3. Earth axis position 4. Terrain features -- slope, aspect, etc. Radiation Quality
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Wavelength- function of temperature of the radiating body Wien's Law: W = 2897/T W is peak wavelength in microns T is the temperature of body in °K °K = °C + 273 1 micron = 10 -6 meters or 1/1,000,000 of a meter 1 micron = 10 -4 centimeters or 1/10,000 of a cm Solar radiation is short-wave. Most other, i.e. earth surface radiation, is long wave.
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hydrologicprocessesonwatersheds - IV. Hydrologic Processes...

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