watershedprotection

watershedprotection - VI Watershed Protection We have now...

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VI. Watershed Protection We have now examined not only the basic processes which a watershed functions but also a method for formulating a management plan which can be imposed on a watershed. Throughout our discussions we have referenced certain act-result interactions and have indicated the effects and desirability of such effects. However, most of these references have been rather oblique and there exists a necessity for examination in detail of specific manipulative acts and their results both as determined by current research and prediction of future results based on past observations from unplanned efforts. We shall discuss these topics under the next three headings- Watershed Protection, Watershed Restoration and Water Yield Management. A. Introduction Watershed protection is generally concerned with two aspects —the first can be called on-site or land resource protection. This area of interest is common to all forms of land management. The second concerns water quality and is specific to watershed management. The factors involved in water quality determinations include the following: sediment- type and amount temperature chemical analysis pH bacteria, etc
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The quality requirements on water depend upon the specific use to be made of it. In general, management trends are towards higher quality requirements. B. Prevention of Damages Associated with Various Resource Uses 1. Road Aspects- (Trails) Roads are usually a major cause of watershed problems. Roads should be constructed with a buffer zone between road and stream channels. Culverts should be installed for 10 year design storms as a minimum. Road construction should begin with advanced planning of: Topography, soils. Intended use of road. Road use period. Construction standards. Materials available in terms of construction materials and money. Proper maintenance of roads during use and retirement after use will minimize problems. The primary problem associated with roads is that due to their nature they reduce infiltration and thereby concentrate water for over the surface flow. Additionally, they may act as barriers to the natural flow patterns of surface water. If road construction activities can be geared to minimize these results then the goals of protection can usually be accomplished. The following “questions” could be asked on site today; or, as a consideration during the planning process of a development activity.
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Road Aspects 1. Are roads built away from swales, valley bottoms, and elongated depressions? 2. Are roads built on benches, ridges, and toes of slopes where feasible? 3. Do roads avoid seeps, clay beds, slide areas, and steeply dipping formations? 4. Are there adequate buffer strips between roads and streams? 5.
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course NRM 4314 taught by Professor Fish during the Fall '10 term at Texas Tech.

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watershedprotection - VI Watershed Protection We have now...

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