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Plume_Wars - ATeaParty,ThePlumeWars andConservation...

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A Tea Party, The Plume Wars,  and Conservation: An American Story Adapted from the Smithsonian Institution of  American History by Cynthia A. Melendy,  Ph.D.
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Women and Environment: An  American History Part One: The Plume Wars Part Two: The Tea Party Part Three: Women and Conservation
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Part One: The Plume Wars Feather Fashions Millinery Houses  traded  internationally Exotic birds Working class  women in feather  trade
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Whole Birds. . .
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Millinery Trade. . . Fancy Feathers, a  millinery supply catalog,  1901 New York Millinery  and Supply Company,  Inc., New York.  83,000 workers who, in  addition to the plume  hunters in Florida,  depended on feathers  and hats as a source of  income
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Hunting and Collecting. . . Since the early 19th  century, the everglade  wetlands of southern  Florida had been home  to the Seminole, the  Muskogee peoples  forced out of their  homelands in the  Southeast after  extended confrontation  with settlers and the  U.S. government. Billy Bowlegs Photograph, about 1892. Courtesy National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.
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Hunting and Collecting After the 1850s their  once-isolated refuge in  the Everglades was  besieged by hunters  and traders anxious to  exploit its natural  resources. The  newcomers depended  on the Seminole as  guides and suppliers of  bird, deer, alligator, and  otter skins.
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When Birds Were Hats Birder Frank Chapman  identified the wings,  heads, tails, or entire  bodies of 3 bluebirds, 2  red-headed  woodpeckers, 9  Baltimore orioles, 5 blue  jays, 21 common terns,  a saw-whet owl, and a  prairie hen. In two  afternoon trips he  counted 174 birds and  40 species in all.
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The Tea Party Harriet Hemenway
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“She’s Wearing a Dead Bird  on Her Head!” Created the Audubon Society Despite not having the right to vote,  women influenced Congress to pass a  series of bird conservation laws. Work in the schools
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The Tea Party…  Though they could  not vote...  Hemenway and Hall  invited groups of  women to tea and  convinced about  900 of them to give  up wearing  feathered hats.
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The Audubon Society The First Audubon  Magazine,  originated from  “Forest and Stream”
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Bird watching and the study of birds: Popular  pastimes around the turn of the century.
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