Ch. 19 Study Guide
Nongame and Endangered Wildlife
For the greatest part of the short history of wildlife management in the U.S., wildlife
management was game management. Natural history and ecology of many birds,
reptiles, amphibians, and other species not having status as game animals were studied
but rarely to manage their numbers or habitats. Within the past decades, wildlife
management has expanded its focus to include nongame species as part of an
ecosystem along with other species managed as game species.
Classification of wildlife into categories like game nongame lies in the
political arena not the biological one
such classifications are for purposes of management
different, even neighboring, states classify the same animals
differently while the animal itself did not change just by crossing
the state border.
Texas classifies wildlife animals as:
Migratory birds: ducks, geese, cranes, doves, rails,
woodcock, snipe…. etc.
Game animals: e.g., deer, turkey, pronghorn, prairie
chicken, pheasant, quail …etc.
nongame (but harvested) animals: e.g., alligator….
non-protected animals: e.g., feral hogs, squirrels,
porcupines, rabbits, prairie dogs, weasels…etc.
some non-protected animals have specific
requirements about take: e.g., bobcat, coyote,
armadillo, mountain lion
others require license but take is not limited: e.g.,
bullfrogs, turtles, and snakes
exotic animals: e.g., non-native ungulates like axis deer,
sika deer, nilgai, blackbuck…etc.
furbearing animals: e.g., badger, beaver, mink, muskrat,
raccoon, skunk, opossum…etc.
endangered, threatened and other protected nongame
animals: includes lists of reptiles: e.g., sea turtles, Texas
horned lizard, indigo snake, timber rattle snake…etc. ,
birds: e.g., hawks, owls, eagles, and all other non-game
birds like songbirds (a few exceptions - see below)
unprotected birds: e.g., starlings, English sparrows,
rock doves, blackbirds and grackles, crows and
game fish: e.g., bass, catfish, crappie, shad, sunfish, trout,
nongame fish: e.g., other freshwater fishes
saltwater finfish: red drum, striped bass, flounder,
mackerel, snapper, shark…etc.
crabs & shrimp