Ch. 7 Notes - Hughes Ch. 7 Reading Study Guide Ch. 7 Food...

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Hughes Ch. 7 Reading Study Guide Ch. 7 Food and cover No animal survives without food and few can exist without cover. Where water is relatively abundant, the acquisition and conservation of nutrients and energy are the driving forces influencing the kinds and numbers of animals living in the area. Those animals best adapted to acquiring or conserving energy will displace the less efficient individuals to sub-optimal habitats where few survive. 1. Food - animal adaptations relating to obtaining energy from food can be grouped into food acquisition, digestion, and behavioral adaptations to reduce predation risk and energy losses 1. food acquisition adaptations have to do with mouth parts, size, etc. 1. birds 1. most have no teeth and have evolved an internal organ gizzard to function as the food grinding organ. 2. highly specialized bill structures adapted to particular feeding niches (e.g., humming bird bill vs. hawk bill) 2. mammals 1. complex tooth development is a distinctive feature of mammals - teeth adapted to grasp prey, shear meat, grind different kinds of vegetation… 2. different size mouths and jaw articulation adapted to different tasks - grasp prey with great power, chew/grind cellulose rich vegetation, selectively pick individual food items… 2. digestive systems of birds and mammals (see Fig. 7-1 in text) 1. physical structures 1. mouth (see above) 2. esophagus - usually simply a tube to move food items to stomach 3. stomach 1. monogastric- simple bag where acid digestion of food items occurs 2. ruminant - complex 4 chambered (rumen, reticulum, omassum, abomassum) biological fermentation vat where microbial action breaks down food items before they enter the acid digestion (abomassum) 4. small intestine extensive absorption tube where most of digested nutrients are transferred into the animals own system 1. ceca (plural) cecum (singular) occur in some species and are expanded sacks after the stomach on the intestines where further microbial breakdown (digestion) of foods occurs.
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Hughes Ch. 7 5. large intestine - further absorption 2. energy - energy needs vary between species 1. warm blooded animals require much more energy than cold-blooded animals 2.
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course AGSC 2301 taught by Professor Middleton during the Spring '09 term at Texas Tech.

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Ch. 7 Notes - Hughes Ch. 7 Reading Study Guide Ch. 7 Food...

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