Ch. 11 Notes

Ch. 11 Notes - Reading Study Guide Ch 11 Wildlife and Water...

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Reading Study Guide Ch. 11 Wildlife and Water Less than 1% of all the water on this planet occurs in our aquifers, rivers, and lakes. Water is necessary for all organisms but it is unevenly distributed. Water occurs in a variety of forms: liquid, gaseous, solid, fresh, to heavily laden with salts and other materials. 1. Some properties of water 1. thermal properties of water help animals thermo-regulate 2. universal solvent that makes nutrients available 1. resulting problems with salinity 2. Some ecological influences of water 1. importance of light penetration into water to provide limnetic zone where plants can grow. However, water erosion increases turbidity reducing light penetration. 2. erosive capabilities of moving water - result in the rivers, canyons, and river formations (like oxbows) that provide habitat foe many wildlife species. Also provide the sedimentation that fills lakes etc and creates mud flats etc. as habitat for other wildlife species. 3. water as ice: creates dams, temporary new lakes and resulting catastrophic floods. Permafrost is a unique arctic habitat dominated by the action of ice. 3. Water, distribution, and isolation 1. geographical distribution of organisms is the result of water distribution present and past. 2. water as a barrier 1. range of tolerance of many species is limited by too little water (deserts etc.) 2. presence of water also limits species movements depending upon their swimming ability. 3. water acts to create islands of habitat: either for those species that can live only where the water exists or for those terrestrial species that cannot cross the water to get to habitats isolated by water. 3. water influenced environments - all environments are influenced to some degree by presence or absence of water. But several terrestrial habitat types are directly associated with water. 1. riparian habitats are those that are along rivers or streams 2. wetland habitats are those which are flooded at least part of the year 3. coastal and oceanic island habitats are associated with ocean edges 4. species ranges are commonly delimited by precipitation isoclines 4. Water and wildlife populations 1. many species are dependent upon water to reproduce 1. amphibians must lay their eggs in water
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2. precipitation 1. productivity, survival, and even harvest of many wildlife species is closely tied to amounts and timing of precipitation 2. many populations are highly responsive to climatic variations 3. wetlands - semi-permanent aquatic/terrestrial habitats 1. critical for waterfowl, migratory shorebirds, and wetland mammals (muskrat, mink etc.) 2. water level, changes, timing, and duration of flooding are key factors influencing wetland habitats and the species that can use them. 5.
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Ch. 11 Notes - Reading Study Guide Ch 11 Wildlife and Water...

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