Lecture Notes Final

Lecture Notes Final - NRM 3307 Final Notes 4-6 Wildlife...

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NRM 3307 Final Notes 4-6 Wildlife toxicology…a conservation issue –Philip Smith Dawn of Toxicology 1500AD—Paracelsus, father of toxicology Mid 1800s—Industrial revolution, assault on the environment; increase in fossil fuel use 1910-1920—WWI, got good at using chemicals; mustard gas 1930s—Organic chemical revolution, taboon (1936) first organo-phosphate insecticide; DDT (1939) 1939—WWII, Nazis used as weapons; 10-30,000 tons of nerve agent could be used by Germans, but was not used Until WWII assault on the environment 1942—Aldo Leopold, “Sand County Almanac” 1962—Racheal Carson, “Silent Spring”; start of environmental awakening 1967—Egg shell thinning, Ratcliffe 1972—DDT banned in North America Early 1970s—EPA formed 1980s—Ecological risk assessment 1996—Theo Colborn, “Our Stolen Future” A Common Approach: Exposure Effects -When combined, you have risk Birds and Lead Shot Poisoning of water fowl Lead affects CA Condors Lead bullets are major contributing factor in health of condors Exposed from unrecovered animals 1995, 342 snow geese killed in mine hole from exposure to acidic, metallic water Site Assessment Water moccasins, fort in E. Texas, lost of mercury in E. Texas Body size good predictor of Hg concentration Pesticides Swainson’s hawk, migratory, in S. America eat locus and other bugs, S. America uses lots of pesticides in fields, over 5,000 dead hawks in 1 area Vultures in India 95% decline in population of white-backed vultures in 1990s Mortality associated with renal failure Eat dead livestock Drug: Diclofenac killed 25/25 vultures Lake Apopka Alligators Environmental conditions, fresh water system surrounded by lots of agriculture
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Major spill of pesticide in 1980 Juvenile mortality rates high Decreased clutch viability Altered plasma hormones Decreased phallus size Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals-EDCs Major topic of the time Endocrine system-pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenals, gonads, Messengers-important hormones TSH, T3, T4, Insulin, Adrenalin, Estrogen, Testosterone Role-determine physiological structure, controls and regulates function Disruptive mechanisms- chemicals mimic natural hormones, bind and block receptors, promote or block breakdown of natural hormones Manifesting EDCs-developmental abnormalities reproductive impairment, behavioral alterations, physiological changes Marine Mammals Bio-accumulation of chemicals Global Transportation of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) Global distillation-chemicals disperse towards poles, cool (distill) and redeposit Areas become sinks for chemicals
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course NRM 3307 taught by Professor Rogowski during the Spring '10 term at Texas Tech.

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Lecture Notes Final - NRM 3307 Final Notes 4-6 Wildlife...

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