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Lecture Notes Test 2

Lecture Notes Test 2 - NRM 3307 Test 2 2-18 What to do...

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NRM 3307 Test 2 2-18 What to do?? Large Scale Policy response o 1992: Rio de Janeiro "Earth Summit" o Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) drafted. This was the first international agreement on protection of Earth's biological resources. o Must be ratified by >150 governments to take effect. o 2004: 188 countries have ratified. o The US signed on (1993) but never ratified. o Places us behind Afghanistan (ratified 2002) but ahead of Iraq (never even signed). Habitat Protection o Yellowstone National Park o How to Prioritize? Option 1: indices of species richness Too variable Option 2: number of species Ignores rarity An uncommon species may be "worth more" Another problem: different taxa show different patterns Have to worry about taxanomic biases. Where do we focus? Option 3: rarity Focus on those species that arte rare. A definition problem (see Table A): Locally? Globally? Per political unit area? Etc. Option 4: endemism Don't worry about all species-just locally unique ones. Typically defined as having a range <50,000km sq. Rarity can be a local affair, endemicity is global. Combining metrics o Our metrics have strengths and weaknesses. o The current approach: instead of choosing a single metric, find a way to combine different metrics to produce a more useful and broad measure of biodiversity o The problem: how? 1. Weighting : assign different degrees of importance 2. Complementaryity : find the common denominators Hotspots o Favorite at the moment o Uses approaches listed before and adds the degree of "threat" o Produces a single measure of high-priority areas. READING: Ch. 11 Evolution: an introduction Science and religion deal with different realms.
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Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) 100 years before Darwin, Buffon questioned many teachings about the origins of life and diversity. For example, he talked about common ancestry of human and apes. Just before his death, he even suggested that the world was much older than 6,000 years old. Buffon and Idealism: There is an idealized cat that spawned all of the current species (link between domestic, lion, tiger, jaguar, etc.) However, the arrows represent degeneration, NOT evolution. The idealized form, created by spontaneous generation or God, was caised to degenerate by local environmental conditions. These form are not valid. The most reviled man in evolutionary biology... Jean-baptise Lamarck 1809 : Lamarck concludes change is possible. Existing taxa change over time, creating the illusion of appearance and extinction. New species can emerge by spontaneous generation. Under Lamarck's theory, species do not go extinct. Over time, some things can change (extinction appearance) and some things can appear (spontaneous generation). Inheritance of acquired traits (giraffes) Later Idealism...
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Lecture Notes Test 2 - NRM 3307 Test 2 2-18 What to do...

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