Reading Notes Test 2

Reading Notes Test 2 - CH 11 Conservation Genetics-Loss of species is accompanied by a more subtle but no less important loss of genetic

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CH. 11: Conservation Genetics -Loss of species is accompanied by a more subtle, but no less important loss of genetic diversity -When a contiguous population is fragmented through habitat destruction, and many small, isolated populations result, levels of genetic diversity within each will decay over time at rates far greater than would be observed in a large and randomly mating population -The rate of evolutionary change in a population is proportional to the amount of genetic diversity available, this is the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection -Genetic variation provides the raw material for future adaptation and is the basis for a species’ evolutionary flexibility and responsiveness to environmental change -Genetic variation must be preserved for both the short- and long-term survival of populations of species -Diversity as measured at the level of genes or quantitative genetic traits represents the primary level of biodiversity -There are many conservation challenges that benefit from the guidance and direction that genetic data, collected and interpreted within the constructs of sound population genetic theory, can furnish Broadly Defined Genetic Issues in Conservation Biology 1. Deleterious effects of inbreeding on reproduction and survival (inbreeding depression) 2. Loss of genetic diversity and ability to evolve in response to environmental change 3. Fragmentation of populations and reduction in gene flow 4. Random processes (genetic drift) overriding natural selection as the main evolutionary force 5. Accumulation and loss (purging) of deleterious mutations 6. Genetic adaptation to captivity and its adverse effects on reintroduction success 7. Resolving taxonomic uncertainties 8. Defining management units within species 9. Use of genetic analyses in forensics 10. Use of molecular genetic analyses to understand aspects of species biology 11. Deleterious effects of fitness that sometimes occur as a result of out-crossing (outbreeding depression) -Conservation Genetics has 2 fundamental aims: to help maintain natural patterns of genetic diversity at many levels, and thus preserve options for future evolution, and to provide tools for population monitoring and assessment that can be used for conservation planning Variation within Individuals -Genes that code for heritable variation are located on chromosomes in the nuclei of cells -A gene represents a specific segment of DNA of a specific chromosome pair that (1) codes for the primary structure of proteins (structural genes), (2) codes for the formation of ribonucleic acid RNA, or (3) regulates the location and times of gene expression - Neutral Genetic Variation is the type of material primarily assayed using molecular genetic techniques - Adaptive Variation is genes under selection -The particular physical or behavioral character (the phenotype, or expressed aspect of a trait, such as eye color) may be due entirely to genotype (genetic construction), to environment (such
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course NRM 3307 taught by Professor Rogowski during the Spring '10 term at Texas Tech.

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Reading Notes Test 2 - CH 11 Conservation Genetics-Loss of species is accompanied by a more subtle but no less important loss of genetic

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