有機化學第七ç«&n

有機化學第七ç«&n

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1 7. Alkenes: eactions and Synthesis Reactions and Synthesis 烯:反應與合成 Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry , 7 th edition Diverse Reactions of Alkenes Alkenes react with many electrophiles to give useful products by addition (often through special reagents) 1,2- 雙醇 鹵醇 醇烷 2 環丙烷 羰基化合物 12- 雙鹵化物 鹵化物 Why this chapter? To begin a systematic description of major functional groups Begin to focus on general principles and patterns of reactivity that tie organic chemistry 3 Outline ± Preparation of Alkenes: Preview of Elimination Reactions A Preview of Elimination Reactions 烯類的合成,脫離反應概述 ± Addition of Halogens to Alkenes 鹵素與烯之附加反應 ± Addition of Hypohalous Acids to Alkenes: alohydrin Formation 醇的生成 4 Halohydrin Formation 鹵醇的生成 ± Addition of Water to Alkenes: Oxymercuration 汞氧化水與烯之加成反應 I
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2 Outline ± Addition of Water to Alkenes: ydroboration 硼化 與烯之加成反應 Hydroboration 氫硼化 水與烯之加成反應 II ± Addition of Carbenes to Alkenes 亞碳基與烯之加成反應 ± Reduction of Alkenes: Hydrogenation 烯之還原 : 加氫 5 Outline ± Oxidation of Alkenes: Epoxidation and ydroxylation 之氧化 Hydroxylation 烯之氧化 ± Oxidation of Alkenes: Cleavage to Carbonyl Compounds 烯之氧化 ± Addition of Radicals to Alkenes: Polymers 自由基附加至烯類 : 高分子 6 ± Biological Alkene Addition Reactions 生化 - 烯之加成 7.1 Preparation of Alkenes: A Preview of Elimination Reactions Preparation of alkenes is dominated y elimination reaction by elimination reaction 7 Two Common Elimination Reactions Elimination of HX from alkyl halide (dehydrohalogenation) 去鹵氫 Uses heat and KOH Elimination of H-OH from an alcohol (dehydration) require strong acids (sulfuric acid, 50 ºC) 8
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3 P. 7.1 9 P. 7.2 10 7.2 Addition of Halogens to Alkenes Bromine and chlorine add to alkenes to give 1,2-dihaldes, an industrially important process F 2 is too reactive and I 2 does not add 11 As a solvent and starting material for PVC 可能的反應機構為何?
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有機化學第七ç«&n

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