有機化學第六ç«&nb

有機化學第六ç«&nb

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1 6. Alkenes: Structure and Reactivity 烯:結構與反應性 Based on McMurry’s Organic Chemistry , 7 th edition Alkene - Hydrocarbon With Carbon-Carbon Double Bond Also called an olefin but alkene is better cludes many naturally occurring materials Includes many naturally occurring materials Flavors, fragrances, vitamins 荷爾蒙 松節油中 2 β-胡蘿蔔素 Why this Chapter? ± C-C double bonds are present in most rganic and biological molecules organic and biological molecules ± To examine consequences of alkene stereoisomerism 3 ± To focus on general alkene reaction: electrophilic addition Outline ± Industrial Preparation and Use of Alkenes 在工業上之使用與製備 烯在工業上之使用與製備 ± Calculating Degree of Unsaturation 不飽和度 ± Naming of Alkenes 命名 ± Cis-Trans Isomerism in Alkenes 4 烯之順反式 ± Sequence Rules: The E,Z Designation ± Stability of Alkenes 烯之穩定性
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2 Outline ± Electrophilic Addition Reaction of Alkenes 電子附加 親電子附加 ± Orientation of Electrophilic Addition: Markovnikov’s Rule 親電子附加之位置 ± Carbocation Structure and Stability 碳陽離子的結構與穩定性 he Hammond Postulate 5 ± The Hammond Postulate ± Evidence for the Mechanism of Electrophilic Addition: Carbocations Rearrangements 碳陽離子的重排 6.1 Industrial Preparation and Use of Alkenes Ethylene and propylene are the most important organic chemicals produced gp 6 Thermal cracking of light (C 2 -C 8 ) alkanes 熱裂解 7 The energetic of thermal cracking are dominated by entropy rather than by enthalpy 6.2 Calculating Degree of Unsaturation 不飽和度 Degree of unsaturation : number of multiple bonds or rings Formula for a saturated acyclic compound is C H n+2 yp n 2n+2 Each ring or multiple bond replaces 2 H's 8
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3 Example: C 6 H 10 ± Saturated is C 6 H 14 herefore 4 H's are not ± Therefore 4 Hs are not present ± This has two degrees of unsaturation ± Two double bonds? ± or triple bond? 9 p ± or two rings ± or ring and double bond Degree of Unsaturation With Other Elements Organohalogens (X: F, Cl, Br, I) Halogen replaces hydrogen C 4 H 6 Br 2 and C 4 H 8 have one degree of unsaturation 10
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2010 for the course CHE CH2005 taught by Professor 曹恒光 during the Spring '10 term at National Central University.

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有機化學第六ç«&nb

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