能源材料-2

能源æ...

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Unformatted text preview: 能源材料 (Energy Materials) 幹程-2 授幹教師:穆帯著 中央大學 材料與化學工程學系 • 油化學基本原理與應用 • 油極反應動力學與熱力學 Electrochemical cell and reaction Electronic conductor : electrode Ionic conductor: electrolyte We will be concerned with the electrode/electrolyte interface and the events that occur there when an electric potential is applied and current passes. Electrode Material Charge is transported through the electrode by the movement of electrons (and hole) 1. solid metal (Pt, Au,..) 2. liquid metal (Hg, amalgams) 3. carbon (graphite); 4. semiconductor Electrolyte • In the electrolyte phase, charge is carried by the movement of ions. 1.Liquid solution containing ionic species 2. Fused salt: molten NaCl-LiClO 4 eutectic 3. Ionic conductive polymer (Nafion, PEO-LiClO 4 ) 4. Solid electrolyte (sodium b-alumina) Electrochemical Cell Zn/Zn 2+ ,Cl- /AgCl/Ag Pt/H 2 /H + ,Cl- /AgCl/Ag Reference Electrode 1. Constant makeup 2. Potential is fixed 3. Any change in the cell are ascribable to the working electrode 1. SHE 2. SCE 3. Ag/AgCl Internal reference: 1. Aqueous solution: Fe(CN) 6 4- /Fe(CN) 6 3- 2. Organic solution Fe(C 5 H 5 ) 2 /Fe(C 5 H 5 ) 2 + Reduction Process Oxidation Process Typical Electrochemical experiment Background limits HBr is a supporting electrolyte Br 2 + 2e- 2Br- H 2 Overpotential Reduction Wave for Cd 2+ Pt electrode in 1M HCl Au electrode in 1M HI Hg electrode in 1M HCl Faradaic and Nonfaradaic Processes Faradaic process : electron transfer causes oxidation or reduction to occur. Reactions are governed by Faradaic raw. Nonfaradaic process : ions adsorption and desorption on the electrode-solution interface Faradaic process Faradaic process: electron transfer process which causes oxidation or reduction to occur. Non-faradaic process: electron flow due to the adsorption and desorption processes, or the structure change of the electrode/solution interface. Red Ox n e- Electrode Solution Red Ox n e- Electrode Solution n e- Electrode Solution---- + + + + H H O H H O Electrode Solution H H O H H O H H O H H O n e- Electrode Solution---- + + + + H H O H H O H H O H H O Electrode Solution H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O H H O Current Time Current Time Current Time Current Time Nonfaradaic Processes • IPE : ideal polarized electrode...
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能源æ...

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