3-溫度壓力體積

3-溫度壓力體積

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Molecular BioEngineering Laboratory BioE PVT relationship of gases ± Pressure ± Kinetic molecular theory ± Ideal gas law ± Real gases ± Equation of state ± Critical condition
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BioE 壓力的測量 西元 1643 年義大利物理學家托瑞西利 (Torricelli)
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BioE 波以耳的 U 型管
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BioE
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BioE Ideal Gas Law An Example of Phenomenological Approach of Science ± Boyle's Law z P 1/V ± Gay-Lussac's Law (Charles's Law) z P (t-t 0 ) ± Avogadro's Hypothesis z P n ± The Equation of State for an Ideal Gas z P nT/V is a constant.
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BioE Boyle's experiment
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BioE - 路塞克定律 (Gay-Lussac s Law) PV = B ( t + 273.15) PV = BT
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BioE Ideal Gas Law ± Avogadro's Hypothesis z 同溫同壓同體積的氣體,具有相同的莫耳數 z PV n at constant T ± Gay-Lussac’s Law z PV = BT ± Ideal gas law z PV = nRT R: gas constant
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BioE
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BioE 壓力的微觀解析 - 古典氣體動力論 c f = ma = m dv/dt = d(mv)/dt = Δ (mv)/ Δ t d Δ (mv) = mu x –(–mu x ) = 2 mu x e Δ t = 2l/u x f f = mu x 2 /l g u 2 = u x 2 +u y 2 +u z 2 h f = mu 2 /3l i F = Σ f i = N*mu 2 /3l = n*Mu 2 /3l j P = F/A = F/l 2 = n*Mu 2 /3l 3 k PV = (2/3) (½Mu 2 )
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BioE Assumptions of kinetic molecular model 1. Newton’s law of motion is applicable. 2. There is no energy loss after collision to the wall. 3. The motion of molecules is directionless. 4. The motion of each molecule is totally independent. z No collision between molecules z No inter-molecular interaction
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BioE Major differences between real and ideal gases ± Ideal gas occupies no volume. ± There is no intermolecular attraction between ideal gases. ± Translational energy of an ideal gas z Molar K.E.= 3RT/2
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BioE Real gases at elevated pressure RT PV nRT PV Z ility compressib m = , Z = 1 for ideal gases Z = f(P, T) for real gases
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BioE Virial Equation L L + + + = + + + = = 2 2 1 ' 1 ' 1 1 , m m m V C V B Z CP BP Z RT PV nRT PV Z ility compressib B V B P 皆會隨著物種與溫度 的不同而改變 !
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BioE Example
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2010 for the course CHE CH2005 taught by Professor 曹恒光 during the Spring '10 term at National Central University.

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3-溫度壓力體積

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