8-The 2nd Law (new) - Molecular BioEngineering Laboratory...

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Unformatted text preview: Molecular BioEngineering Laboratory ioE The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics ¡ Clausius Statement ¡ Kelvin’s Statement ¡ Carnot Engine ¡ Various statements for the 2nd law BioE 熱力學第二定律的日常經驗 BioE Clausius Statement ¡ 在無外力作用之下, z 熱的傳遞方向皆由高溫傳向低溫之處; z 質量的傳遞皆由濃度高處往低處傳; z 動量的傳遞皆由高壓處傳向低壓處。 T H T C T H T C T H T C E W Q 1 Q 3 T H T C T H T C T H T C E W Q 1 Q 3 T H T C E W Q 1 Q 3 BioE Kelvin ’ s Statement ¡ 再好的引擎,也無法將所吸收到的熱,百分之百 轉換為功。 T H T C E W = Q 1-Q 3 Q 1 Q 3 ≠ T H T C E W = Q 1 Q 1 T H T C E W = Q 1-Q 3 Q 1 Q 3 ≠ T H T C E W = Q 1-Q 3 T H T C E W = Q 1-Q 3 Q 1 Q 3 ≠ T H T C E W = Q 1 Q 1 BioE Clausius 和 Kelvin 敘述其實指的是相同的現 象 T H T C E W Q 1 T H T C E Q 1 Q 3 T C Q 3 if then T H T C E W Q 1 T H T C E W Q 1 T H T C E Q 1 Q 3 T H T C E Q 1 Q 3 T C Q 3 if then BioE Ideal gas in a Carnot Engine ¡ Isothermal reversible expansion ¡ Adiabatic reversible expansion ¡ Isothermal reversible compression ¡ Adiabatic reversible compression a b c d (P 1 , V 1 , T H ) (P 2 , V 2 , T H ) (P 3 , V 3 , T L ) (P 4 , V 4 , T L ) Q H Q L a b c d a b c d (P 1 , V 1 , T H ) (P 2 , V 2 , T H ) (P 3 , V 3 , T L ) (P 4 , V 4 , T L ) Q H Q L BioE Isothermal reversible expansion (P 1 ,V 1 ,T 1 ) → (P 2...
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8-The 2nd Law (new) - Molecular BioEngineering Laboratory...

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