387StudyGuide2Reads

387StudyGuide2Reads - COMM 387 Media Public Relations&...

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Unformatted text preview: COMM 387 Media, Public Relations & Propaganda STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 Readings Joel Bakan “The Corporation’s Rise to Dominance” Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber “Questioning Authority” James Hoggan “Preface” and “Manipulated Media” Naomi Oreskes and Eric Conway “Introduction” and “Doubt is Our Product” Joel Bakan The Corporation’s Rise to Dominance 6. What does the comparison with 1720 reveal? 11. What was offered as a political justification for limited liability? 12. On what basis did some people criticize limited liability? 13. How are New Jersey and Delaware important to understanding the rise of the corporate form to dominance? 7. What is the genius of the corporation as a business form? 8. How did the invention of the steam ­driven engine influence the corporate form? 9. Who does Bakan think were the true creators of the modern corporate era? 10. By the middle of the 19th century what was the principal barrier to broader public participation in stock markets? 4. Why did the English Parliament do as the result of the collapse of the South Sea Company? 5. What has been the response of modern governments to scandals every bit as nefarious as the South Sea bubble? 1. How does Bakan compare corporations to the church and the monarchy in other times? 2. What was the difference between the partnership form and the corporation when it emerged in the late 16th Century? 3. What did Adam Smith warn about? 14. What happened to corporations when the controls were loosened on mergers and acquisitions? 15. Who holds power and control in corporations? 16. What concept replaced shareholders as the holders of the legal rights and duties need to operate in the economy? 17. What did the decision by the Supreme Court in 1886 do? 18. How did corporations respond to the legitimacy crisis created as a result of the early 20th century merger movement? 19. What was the aim of the AT&T advertising campaign initiated in 1908? 20. How did General Motors try and personalize the corporation? 25. What was the New Deal designed to do? 26. How did some business leaders respond to the New Deal? 27. For the 50 years following the New Deal what happened to the growing power of corporations? 21. What were corporations doing by the end of World War 1? 22. Why did “social responsibility” blossom again in the 1930’s? 23. What did Gerald Swope, president of General Motors say in 1934? 24. According to Erwin Dodd in 1932 what view was it necessary for corporations to disseminate? 28. What did “neoliberalism” celebrate? 35. What has the WTO, on numerous occasions, required nations to do? 36. Who are the trade and commerce ministers who represent the member states closely aligned with? 39. What are modern corporations seeking to do to their image? 40. What do corporations as brands have? 41. Who believes that corporations have become a dangerous mix of power and unaccountability? 37. What has economic globalization substantially enhanced? 38. According to Ira Jackson who have corporations and their leaders displaced? 29. What had enhanced corporations’ mobility and portability? 30. What did mobility allow corporations to do? 31. What did freedom from the bonds of location allow for corporations? 32. What would governments have to do in the age of corporate mobility? 33. What has the World Trade Organization evolved into? 34. What did member states of the WTO agree to in 1998? Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber “Questioning Authority” 1. What did the Stanley Milgram experiments conclude? 2. How did audience members respond to the Doctor Fox lecture? 3. How did Martin Lawrence conduct one of the most common frauds in the history of finance? 4. Which of the tricks used by the propagandists tries to obscure the meaning of what is being talked about with deliberately vague jargon? 5. What is striking about the plain folks strategy when it comes to the U.S. Congress? 6. What was one of Joseph Goebbel’s main contributions to propaganda tactics? 7. What do Peter Sandman’s 12 points have in common? 8. What can’t propagandists tell you about the public’s irrationality? 9. When it comes to decisions about public issues, what is often more important than expertise and knowledge? 10. What is the difference between a contractor and a public policy expert? 11. Which attributes are unjustifiably linked to expertise? 12. How do scientists live with uncertainty? 13. What will an honest researcher almost always report about a study? 14. What questions can be asked about a study? 15. What is the precautionary principle? 19. Why is corpotate funding particularly important to track? 23. How are think tanks different from universities? 24. Why does Jonathan Rowe think the term “think” tanks is a misnomer? 28. What is the important issue of how we address the role of authorities in our lives? 29. What is a consensus conference? 25. How do reporters cheapen and degrade their product? 26. What was interesting about British Medical Journal’s joke issue? 27. Why don’t stations disclose they use footage from Video News Releases in their news stories? 20. What are groups such as the Foundation for Clean Air progress and Citizens for Sensible Control of Acid rain examples of? 21. What is the function of many “think tanks” 22. What is the political leaning of think tanks? 16. How can scientific uncertainty be resolved? 17. What does it mean to say that most experts in the employ of government and industry are technophiles? 18. How does Jeff Steir justify not disclosing corporate funding of research? 36. According to Rampton and Stauber what is activism? 37. Who is Maude De Victor a heroine to? 38. What was the effect of Terri Swearington’s activism around toxic waste incinerators? 39. What was Einstein’s distinction between clever and wise? 33. What conclusions did Doble and Richardson draw from their study? 34. When it comes to the building of nuclear power how do scientists and the public differ? 35. What kind of people cannot be easily swayed by propaganda? 30. Where have consensus conferences been widely adopted? 31. What is community ­based research? 32. What are the obstacles to increased democracy and citizen participation being bought to bear on the scientific and policymaking process? Question on James Hoggan Climate Cover ­Up: The Crusade to Deny Global Warming PREFACE: 1. What surprised Hoggan when he started to do reading about climate change? 2. What important question did Ross Gellspan ask about the people denying climate change? 3. What were denier scientists getting paid for? 4. How does Richard Littelmore describe the Canadian government’s Kyoto Implementation Process? 5. What did DeSmogBlog find about the vocal skeptics of climate change? 6. What will it take to stop climate change? 7. What two things does Hoggan believe? MANIPULATED MEDIA: 8. What have the science academies of every major nation affirmed? 9. What do a majority of Americans believe about climate change? 10. What is the difference between Democrats and Republicans in beliefs about climate change? 11. When education is factored in, what happens to the differences between Democrats and Republicans? 12. What different things are Democrats and Republicans better informed about? 13. What have the major media in North America failed to do? 17. According to Crain, what is it harder for radio and television to transmit? 18. What have the infinite number of media outlets contributed to? 19. What does Hoggan label Fox News’ failure to inform their audience that Steven Milloy is an industry lobbyist? 24. What reasonable explanation does Hoggan come up with for why newspapers would allow inaccurate material to appear in their papers? 25. Where does Monbiat trace the source for the claim, published in New Scientist by David Bellamy, that the majority of the world’s glaciers were growing, not shrinking? 20. When it comes to the case of Barry Cooper, what does Hoggan argue is the responsibility of the Calgary Herald 21. What was the problem with the National Post series on The Deniers? 22. What did the Nationa Post do when Nigel Weiss claimed that the article by Lawrence Solomon was a slanderous fabrication? 23. What does Solomon admit about his book The Deniers 14. What did Caleb Crain chronicle in the New Yorker? 15. Why is the complexity issue a real problem for global warming? 16. How are text and video different when it comes to noticing inconsistencies in differing accounts of the same problem? 26. Why is it risky for reporters to commit themselves to the reality of climate change? 27. Why does Naomi Oreskes say that scientists are partly to blame for the public not understanding climate change? 29. How does Hoggan describe the alleged “scientific controversy”? 28. How does the “trickle ­down” view of knowledge that scientists believe in impede public understanding? Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway Merchants of Doubt Introduction: 1. What did the research of Ben Santer show? 2. What did the op ­ed piece in the Wall Street Journal claim about Santer’s authorship of a chapter in the IPCC report? 3. In response to what had Santer made changes in the IPCC report? 4. What has happened to the discredited and false claims made against Santer? 5. What were Santer’s accusers really interested in? 6. Who were Frederick Seitz and Fred Singer connected with? 7. What did the millions of documents released during tobacco litigation show? 8. What was the target of the “tobacco strategy”? 9. What did journalists and the public never understand about the debates around tobacco, the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), acid rain, the ozone layer and second ­ hand smoke? 10. What did Fred Seitz, Fredd Singer, William Nierenberg and Robert Jastrow have access to? 11. On which side of the scientific consensus were the four men who? Doubt is Our Product 12. What was the principal goal of the research program announced by Colin Stokes, and to be directed by Fred Seitz, in 1979? 13. If the goal of the program was to fight science with science, what kind of research would be funded? 14. In addition to new data, what else would the new program supply? 15. What could scientific experts supply? 16. What was the tobacco industry’s central problem? 17. Why is December 15th, 1953, a fateful day? 18. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, what was the tobacco industry guilty of? 19. What, and why, did John Hill suggest about the new committee to be established by the tobacco industry? 20. What was the tobacco industrys position when they approached media about the health effects of its products? 21. What was the scientific consensus on the effects of smoking by the end of the 1950’s? 22. What did Clarence Little think was the cause of cancer? 23. Why do Oreskes and Conway think that Wilhelm Hueper was willing to question the link between tobacco and cancer? 24. How did the industry make its case that there was no link between tobacco and cancer? 28. How did newspapers and magazines present the smoking issue in the 1950s and 1960s? 35. How did the industry respond to the 1967 Surgeon General’s report? 36. Why did the industry support the 1969 FCC ban on television advertising? 37. How did the tobacco industry seek to enlist the aid of the alcohol industry? 38. In addition to cancer what else is smoking linked to? 31. What was the role of the tobacco industry in the constitution of the U.S. Surgeon General’s Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health? 32. What had the industry’s scientists concluded by the 1960s? 33. What did the 1963 Surgeon General’s report conclude? 34. What did the tobacco industry do in response to the 1964 report? 29. Why was Edward R. Murrow so useful to the tobacco industry? 30. What other mainstream links did the tobacco industry seek to create? 25. Why were the questions that the industry posed disingenuous? 26. What technique had the industry developed to create the impression of controversy? 27. Why did the appeal to journalistic balance resonate with editors and writers? 39. What happened to industry profits as smoking rates declined in the population? 40. How could the industry defend itself against the vast majority of the independent research? 43. What criteria did Seitz use when deciding what research to fund? 47. What does the equal time argument not work for science? 48. According to the World Health organization, what is smoking responsible for? 49. When we say that smoking causes cancer what type of cause is it? 50. Why does doubt mongering work? 51. What was the industry’s key insight about creating doubt? 52. When Seitz set up the George C. Marshall Institute, what was the goal? 44. What did Martin Cline claim about $3 million that the tobacco industry had supplied to him? 45. What happened in 2004? 46. How do Oreskes and Conway label the research funded by the tobacco industry? 41. Why did Fred Seitz agree to work for the tobacco industry? 42. How did Seitz regard the attacks against the industry? ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2010 for the course COMM 387 taught by Professor Sutjhally during the Spring '06 term at UMass (Amherst).

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