CHAPTER 2 Outline

CHAPTER 2 Outline - CHAPTER 2: ESSENTIAL CHEMISTRY FOR...

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8 CHAPTER 2: ESSENTIAL CHEMISTRY FOR BIOLOGY Concepts to Master I. ORGANISMS HAVE SIMILAR CHEMICAL PATTERNS BASED ON ATOMIC STRUCTURE. II. CHEMICAL BONDS PRODUCE A CHEMICAL PATTERN IN CELLS AND ORGANISMS. III. WATER HAS UNIQUE PROPERTIES THAT MAKE IT ESSENTIAL FOR LIFE. I. ORGANISMS HAVE SIMILAR CHEMICAL PATTERNS BASED ON ATOMIC STRUCTURE A. Chemical Elements are the Building Blocks for Biological Compounds in Organisms (pp. 21-22) MATTER Matter is composed of CHEMICAL ELEMENTS The other 4% includes TRACE ELEMENTS
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9 Chemical elements combine to form COMPOUNDS o Which of the following are compounds? Water (H 2 O) Salt (NaCl) Oxygen gas (O 2 ) B. Each Chemical Element has only one kind of ATOM . (pp. 22-23) C. The Chemical Elements Differ from One Another by Having a Different Number of Subatomic Particles. (p. 23) ATOMIC NUMBER MASS NUMBER SUBATOMIC PARTICLES in Helium (He)
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10 2.0 Differences in Chemical Elements: Atomic Number and Mass Number Element Atomic Mass Number of Number of Number of Number Number Protons Electrons Neutrons H C O F MyBiology Activity: The Structure of Atoms II. CHEMICAL BONDS PRODUCE A CHEMICAL PATTERN IN CELLS AND ORGANISMS A. Electrons Determine how an Atom Behaves when it Encounters Other Atoms. (pp. 24-25) ELECTRON SHELLS
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11 Atoms with filled outermost shells Atoms with unfilled outermost shells MyBiology Activities: Electron Arrangement and Build an Atom B. IONIC BONDS Form from the Attraction between Ions with Opposite Charges. (p. 25) IONS CATIONS
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ANIONS MyBiology Activity: Ionic Bonds C. COVALENT BONDS Form when Atoms Share One or More Pairs of Electrons to Become Molecules . (pp. 25-26) 2.2 Outer Shell Electrons and the Number of Covalent Bonds Formed Element # Electrons # Electrons in # Electrons Needed # Covalent the Outer Shell
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CHAPTER 2 Outline - CHAPTER 2: ESSENTIAL CHEMISTRY FOR...

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