Chapter 18

Chapter 18 - 1/21 French Revolution, Origins Constant wars...

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1/21 French Revolution, Origins Constant wars -Louis 14 th and 15 th -middle of 17 th cent into the 18 th -War of austrian assesion – 7 years 1756-1763 for domination in europe Treasury drained -By the end of the 18 th century made economics difficult Wealthy nation -Sailing vessles largest in the world, trade with Africa east India and east atlantic (trade was very robust) Wealthy, exempt -wealthiest were exempt from taxes -aristocracy not obligated to pay taxes Tax reform -otherwise france was brok due to wars bankrupting the country Nobility and Taxes Number -400,000 high nobles or aristocrats *owened 25% of the country *saw taxes as a poor peoples duty and thought it was degrading socially and culturally Manorial rights -Ability to tax peasants, pay nobles to fish on land, dues payed for presses Cost to the state -50% of the budget was devoted to keeping up on the debt worth, Just paying interest not the actual debt -money was based on gold -Judges, Police (country running out of money)
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No central bank -France needed loans and no one wanted to loan. Church Number -100,000 clergy churches (tax exempt instution) -Give state a gift a year -not interested in louis general tax Estates: -6% of budget to keeping up estates(Land) (Versai) Expensive! The Three Estates and Taxes First Estate- Church High and Low -clergy members ,High;(cardinals, abbots, bishops) Low(Detested wealth and arrogance of the high clergy) Responsibilities Land What did they do? Second Estate- The nobility Nobility -Tax is abusive power to be resisted by all people. Universalist themes Taxes? Rent Land - owed lord work for using land and stuff - 30% owned Corvee Sword v. Robe *2 levels of nobility Hated each other Sword- prestigious, lineage, Robe- Suck ups Third Estate- Everyone els (roughly 25million people) Bourgeoisie – Middle class (physican) Meritocratic? Can’t serve in parliament
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The Peasantry Abject poverty Semi-feudal- surfdom Land Increasing subdivision Taxation The Feudal Reaction Last gasp of fuedalism Aristocracy increasingly disenchanted with monarch, and societies direction Social customs- aristocracy was getting poorer but bourgeoisie class getting richer Sale of land -Exchange of wealth Demands on peasants increased Didn’t like increasing bourgeois access to top positions
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Chapter 18 - 1/21 French Revolution, Origins Constant wars...

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