Unformatted text preview: Chapter 19: The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism In 1799, as a prominent army general, Napoleon Bonaparte led a military coup and established himself as the leader of France; five years later he crowned himself Emperor Napoleon I. Between his coronation as emperor and his last military defeat in 1815, Napoleon conquered most of Europe. The repercussions of his actions are still felt today. Ironically, one of the most important effects of Napoleon's stunning success in conquering vast parts of Europe ‐‐ the rise of the modern form of nationalism ‐‐ led to his downfall, as citizens united to protect their land from the French invader. As his army spread the liberalism and nationalism of the French Revolution across Europe, people in the areas ruled by Napoleon began to resent French rule. This resentment eventually turned to opposition and revolt, and led to the emperor's ultimate defeat. Romanticism, too, emerged in this period. The movement, a reaction against and rejection of the rationalism of Enlightenment thought, emphasized nature, individualism, the arts and religion, and it flourished in the turbulent period between the French Revolution and the end of the Napoleonic Wars. After reading this chapter, you should be able to: Discuss Napoleon's rise to power and explain how he was able to become Emperor. Identify Napoleon's administrative reforms and understand how they differed from Old Regime policies. Trace France's military conquests, the establishment of the French Empire, and European resistance to France. Explain Napoleon's reasons for invading Russia and understand how the failed invasion marked the beginning of his downfall. Discuss the Congress of Vienna and its significance. Differentiate between Romanticism and the Enlightenment and explain why Romanticism thrived during the Napoleonic Age. Chapter IDs You should be able to describe the following concepts, people, places or events associated with this week's material. Napoleon Bonaparte Battle of Jena Battle of Waterloo Lord Nelson Napoleonic Code Ch. Maurice de Talleyrand Battle of Austerlitz Robert Castlereagh Georg Hegel Continental System Methodism Treaty of Tilsit The “Hundred Days” Francisco Goya Romanticism Bread Riots Bread riots, October 5, 1789 Women 7,000 to Versailles Return to Paris Louis XVI escorted back to Paris Off with their heads Back to the Tuileries Radicalization Constitution July 14, 1790 Hereditary titles outlawed Trial by jury Franchise Indirect elections Checks and balances Church and Constitution Civil Constitution of the Clergy (pic)‐ demanded oath of loyalty to the kingdom, every priest had to sign the constitution, pope was not happy about it. Oath of loyalty to Kingdom Juring v. Non‐juring‐ split, non juryin was loyal to the pope Confiscation of Church land along with church property, paper currency was issued on the base of that issued ; Assignats Church and peasantry‐ peasantry was upset, they were more tied to their religion, the civil constitution of the clergy aggravated Constitution, cont’d (At left: Assignats) Coalition Splinters Aristocrats fled‐ not going to keep my peasants I give that right up, the aristocrats start to leave france in fear of theire lives. Louis XVI grows anxious‐ house in tuileries, did not want to be constitutional monarch, therefore they tried and did escape on there way to luxenbourge to meet with maries brother, they were caught and taken back . they searched his things and found documents saying the constitution was horrendous and stated he could never live up to Rise of the Jacobins Oath in September‐king oath that he would abide to the constitution but it wasn’t enough to the radical bourgeoisie Jacobins Georges Jacques Danton Lawyer as were most radicals Political organizer‐ Later executed and criticized for excessive moderation Jacobins v. Girondins ‐split : radical vs. from country not as radical, divide for power, Threats from Abroad ***Declaration of Pillnitz, August 1791‐ called for monarchic solidarity against the revolution, monarchs Austria and Prussia would unite against the revolutions from france to spread the revolution. Declaration of War, April 1792‐ defeats ; people get more and more radicalized Continued radicalization Fear of counterrevolution at home‐ started going crazy, radical faze Jacobins and Sans‐Culottes‐ jacobins feared revolution would be undone by subversives at home or moderates. ‐ gained power by merging with san culottes in paris. ‐paris governed by jacobins and seen as a commune now. Birth of the First Republic Storming of the Tuileries, August 10, 1792‐ point of no return, idea cons monarchy is over, upset nothing was happening to the king. King a prisoner New National Convention, September 21‐ new constitution draft, universal suffrage September Massacres September 2‐7‐ around 1500 royalists or thought to be, were arrested, tried and executed, panic from rumors.. ‐Summary executions Abolition of monarchy officially it. ‐radicals said this is what we told you the king cannot be trusted Flight to Varennes, June 20 1791 ‐emporer wanted to help because of the principal of monarchy thinking it could happen to them. Constitution an atrocity ‐King was brought back in shame and Peasant Uprising in Vendee First Coalition, March 1793‐ spain, sardenia, naples; do whatever they can so that revolution is not spread. (European wide coalition) French army was dying French defeats‐ Peasant uprising, March 1793‐ anti clerical excesses. Opposed service in republican army, new royal catholic army, civil war along with war againsed neighbors Cities fall‐ effective royal catholic army ‐ inflation is rampant, peasants hurt Crisis in National Convention‐ split between girondins and Committee of Public Safety Real power‐concentrated Renewed on monthly basis, initially‐ vested most power into the committee of public safety, lawyers, officers, professors, civil servant (bourgeousi) Grew independent Membership Maximilien Robespierre Jacobin lawyer Reign of Terror‐ pushed the idea forward to most radical , the idea was to eliminate the enemies of the revolution at home, then focus on foreign powers that are threat Member of Committee of Public Safety Leader of powerful faction Execution of Louis XVI Girondins urged moderation King tried for treason, December 1792‐January 1793 Vote: DEATH‐ guillotine Execution of Marie Antoinette Guillotined October 1793 Girondin influence waned Jacobin power increased with support of sans‐culottes Growing split between rural v. urban‐ Jacobin Power & Committee of Public Safety 3 Areas of Concern War Prussians, British, Girondins Levee en masse‐first draft Battle of Valmy, September 20, 1792 Revolutionary armies on advance Counter‐Revolution put down in Vendee Reign of Terror, June 1793‐July 1794 2nd area of concern Domestic “enemies” Girondins, October 31‐ grouped together in paris, and excecuted. Non‐juring priests‐ excecuted Death tolls, Paris‐ maybe 2000, 20000 nationwide Outlying areas Death tolls Who were other victims? Guillotine Great leveler? More humane? Primary instrument of death during Reign of Terror Way of Life 3rd area of concern Establish new “way of life” Dress Calendar Religion (Cult of Reason) Reign of Terror Evaluated Economic policy? Defense of Nation? Felt safe Waning sense of national emergency Revolution devoured itself‐ paranoia, July 27, 1794, Robespierre arrested and executed Jacobin Clubs closed Price controls rescinded Victories on the battlefield, 1794‐95 *Napoleon Bonaparte Corsican by birth Rising star in the military Coup, (1799) First Consul, (1802) Emperor, (1804) Napoleon Bonaparte, (cont’d) Grandeur Greatest empire since the Romans Paris becomes center of continent (At left: Napoleon crowned Emperor. Painting by Ingres). The Grand Army Officers were professionals Conscription Innovative Armies unto themselves Independent in nature Reinforcements from satellite states Heavy artillery Battle tactics diverse Speed and distance Disinformation Inherent problems for the Grand Army and the Vanquished Constant problem of supply Enormous booty Resentment Indemnities Austria (75‐164 million) Prussia (470‐514 million) Problems among his enemies Habsburg v. Romanov Habsburg v. Hohenzollern Battle of Trafalgar, October 21, 1805 Background Britain dominant Naval power Blockade Napoleon needed to control the Channel Spain & France allies (At left: the Victory breaking the Franco‐Spanish line). Battle of Trafalgar, (cont’d) Nelson’s strategy Loose blockade Lure French Oops Gave chase Battle of Trafalgar, (cont’d) Third Coalition, August 1805 Battle of Ulm Secrecy and marching Crossed Rhine, September 25 Wheel movement around fortress on October 20 Many prisoners November 14, takes Vienna (At left: The Capitulation of Ulm by Charles Thevenin). Battle of Austerlitz December 2 Numbers Feint Victory Repercussions Treaty of pressburg‐ power of everything north of rome. July 1806‐ organized the confederation of rhine (Francis I of russia) Battle of Jena Prussian policy October 14, 1806 Catastrophic Old v. New Treaty of Tilsit Prussia weakened French occupation Vassal states Holy Roman Empire dead Peninsular War November 30, invades Lisbon, closes ports Joseph made King of Spain, 1808 Rebellion in Madrid, May 2, 1808 Brutal repression Guerilla warfare 300,000 casualties (At left: Why?” by Francisco Goya) Aftermath Nelson dead 22 French‐Spanish ships sunk England saved from invasion Napoleon’s Extension of Power Summary King of Italy, 1805 Jerome, King of Westphalia, 1807 Holland annexed, 1810 Marriage to Maria Louisa Habsburg, 1810 Unrest Among Continental Powers Napoleon illegitimate Destroying old order Napoleonic Code Continental System ‐unpopular in Russia, Russia, Britain ‐timber Invasion of Russia ‐ trade embargo was failure also because officials were enapped. Smuggling. ‐britain to drain its gold reserves. ‐napoleon wanted all products to be French. To make france the dominant power. ‐russia engaged in a war against turkey of the ottoman empire and gained territory, this caused him to have concern of the power expanding territory, ‐ looking for a scapegoat. ‐began prep in 1811, seeking allys June 22, 1812 Satellite states Manpower for this huge army he wanted to form (treeties) ‐confederation of the rhine‐ 3rd source of manpower, had to supply certain number of men to france as well. Metternish‐ austrian troops under Austrian command, tried to remain neutral but napoleon have none of it. Skirmishes‐ russians retreat repetitively. Scorched earth‐ early winter burned down ther goods and farms, unusable for the French, russians poisoned wells and did everything they could. Supply lines?‐ the longer the supply lines became (weakest of his army) ‐ 2 months‐ hundred thousands deserted ,died or became to ill to serve Reach Moscow, September 1812 ‐ Thinks finally battle, but Moscow was a deserted city, loses 5‐6 thousand a day, send out messages to Alexander to talk about peace. (At left: conflagration of Moscow). ‐release criminals into the city to burn the city, ‐ removed something so the French had to use buckets of water to put out the Retreat Denouement Wars of Liberation‐ rebel against napoleon, had to fight their way back, by the time they get back the have 30,000 out of a million men. (turned there guns to through off French control and domination) Treaty of Chaumont‐ not a pleasant choice for napoleon, French troops almost non‐ existant, no longer emperor, sent to island fly infested, 2 mil franks a year. ‐100 days to return Napoleon abdicates, April 1814 1. CONGRESS OF VIENNA Oct 1814 June 1815 Redraw the map of Europe Led by Metternich of Austria. fires. Napoleon had to stay in Moscow or head back to paris. 2. KLEMENS VON METTERNICH ‐ married an heiress, father was diplomatic core how he joined, ‐ diplomatic star ‐ Foreign minister in 1809 ‐Restoration ‐Principle of Legitimace 3. Conservatism A. Basic tenets a. obedience to politial authority b. no separation of church and state c. revolution was despised d. no acknolidgement of civil liberties (arrested anytime), no innaeleable rights e. Community over individual. 4. Political Liberalism A. personal freedom and social progress a. the catch, people considered liberals were middle class, and not entirely happy of mass participation and didn’t trust the peasants and sharing class rights. b. Common beliefs c. Constitutional Government (Metternich fighting against) ‐Checks and balances, not to most people just to middle class ‐ equality befor the law ‐ protection of civil liberties ‐ Ministers in the governmental cabinet are responsible to report to an assembly to serve the state. 4. Nationalism A. longstanding loyalty to church or ruling families B. Spread of literacy, education, trade, vernacular a. Could now read and see that they were connected to people b. created one language that the country needed to speak (language of the country) local to national loyalties. c. growth coincided with industrial revolution d. especially problematic for Habsburg Empire ‐ not everyone’s ethnicity was the same. Different language and culture, and generations of hating eachother. ...
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