CHAPTER 3 Outline

CHAPTER 3 Outline - CHAPTER 3: THE MOLECULES OF CELLS...

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CHAPTER 3: THE MOLECULES OF CELLS Concepts to Master I. CARBON IS THE BACKBONE OF ALL LIFE II. MACROMOLECULES BUILD LIVING SYSTEMS III. THE ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES IN CELLS AND ORGANISMS IV. THE ROLE OF LIPIDS IN CELLS AND ORGANISMS V. THE ROLE OF PROTEINS IN CELLS AND ORGANISMS VI. THE ROLE OF NUCLEIC ACIDS IN CELLS AND ORGANISMS I. CARBON IS THE BACKBONE OF ALL LIFE A. ORGANIC MOLECULES Contain Carbon Atoms. (pp. 36-38) a. Next to water, organic molecules are the most common substances found in living organisms. HYDROCARBONS are the simplest organic molecules, containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms. o Hydrocarbons form the skeleton of most large organic molecules. Methane (CH 4 )- is the simplest hydrocarbon Carbon atoms are common in large complex molecules because they can form four covalent bonds with other atoms. 20
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*Hydrocarbon skeletons may Vary in length Be unbranched or branched Contain double bonds (atoms are sharing 2 atoms of each), less hydrogen Ring structures MyBiology Activity: Diversity of Carbon-Based Molecules B. Organic Molecules Interact Through Functional Groups. (p. 38) FUNCTIONAL GROUPS- are groups of atoms attached to hydrocarbon skeletons. o Give organic molecules unique properties Hydrogen oxygen bonds are usually polar. Some Common Functional Groups amino and carbonyl group are bases. While Hydroxyl group(acts as an acid) and carboxyl group are polar.(both found in acids) 21
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MyBiology Activity: Functional Groups II. MACROMOLECULES BUILD LIVING SYSTEMS A . Macromolecules are Usually Polymers . (p. 38) MACROMOLECULES- large molecules POLYMERS- made by stringing together many monomers which are smaller and similar subunits. B. Chemical Reactions can Build or Tear Apart Macromolecules (pp. 38-39) DEHYDRATION REACTIONS build polymers from monomers o One monomer loses a H and one loses an OH to HYDROLYSIS reactions break down polymers into monomers o Covalent bonds are broken by adding water to replace h lost by one
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CHAPTER 3 Outline - CHAPTER 3: THE MOLECULES OF CELLS...

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