PHI101_71013_Lecture12_Oct08 - PHI 101(71013 Dr Tuomas...

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PHI 101 (71013) Dr. Tuomas Manninen ASU-West John Searle: “Minds, Brains, and Computers” October 8, 2009
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Computer simulations of human cognition Weak AI (artificial intelligence) Computer models provide a powerful tool in the study of the mind Computers can simulate some cognitive states Strong AI A computer is more than a mere tool An appropriately programmed computer really is a mind A computer with right programs literally understands (and has other cognitive states)
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Searle’s position Accepts Weak AI Rejects Strong AI – why? First, why think that strong AI is possible?
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In favor of Strong AI We don’t balk at fictional examples of machines that can think; instead, we seem to regard these as plausible. E.g. Data (of Star Trek ), the Terminator , and others. Schank’s experiment on computers understanding stories.
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(Alleged) Examples of Strong AI ELIZA (1966): http://www-ai.ijs.si/eliza/eliza.html A computer program that simulated a non- directional psychotherapist; the responses determined the direction of the discussion. With the advent of IRC (where conversation is often stilted), there are documented cases where other programs have managed to fool the discussants into thinking that they are corresponding with another human being (e.g. AOLiza – see http://fury.com/aoliza/ )
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(Alleged) Examples of Strong AI (2) IBM’s Deep Blue , who beat the reigning chess champion Kasparov in a game in tournament setting in 1996. Overall, Kasparov won the match (3-2-1); but in a 1997 rematch, Deep Blue beat Kasparov 3.5- 2.5 (after Kasparov dejected the sixth and final game) Notice, however, that this is an instance of weak AI. http://www.bobby-fischer.net/Garry_Kasparov_vs_Deep_Blue_1997_games.
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(Alleged) Examples of Strong AI (3) The post-modern random generator (create your own post-modern essays) http://www.elsewhere.org/pomo This may be better seen as a critique of post-modernism rather than an example of AI (strong or weak).
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Turing test An imitation game, designed to show that computers can think like humans.
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