ancom_lec15 C - Oct 18, 2010 PSY 3364 Animal Communication...

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1 PSY 3364 Animal Communication Oct 18, 2010 Southern Copperhead ( Agkistrodon contortrix ) ht p:/ animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Agkistrodon_contortrix.html Southern Copperhead ( Agkistrodon contortrix ) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata ht p:/ animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Agkistrodon_contortrix.html Subphylum Vertebrata Class Reptilia Order Squamata Suborder Serpentes Family Viperidae Genus Agkistrodon Species contortrix Territorial signals Territory – in ecology, any area defended by an organism or a group of similar organisms for such purposes as mating, nesting, roosting, or feeding. Home range – Area occupied by an animal which is not necessarily defended Why defend a territory? • Benefits: – exclusive access to important resources – abundant or sufficient supplies of food, a mate, safe hiding places, shelter, nest sites • Costs: – loss of time, loss of energy resources devoted to signaling – energy lost patrolling and defending territory boundaries – risk of predation when exposed – cost of an injury if escalated fighting breaks out. Types of territory Breeding territories Feeding territories Al purpose territorie All-purpose territories
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2 Bird song and territory defense • Competition for limited resources • Signal to keep intruders out Long distance threat signa • Long-distance threat signal • Effectiveness of a threat depends on the likelihood of escalated aggressive behavior if not heeded • advertisement, threat, and attack. Donald Kroodsma The Singing Life of Birds (Houghton Mifflin, 2005) Donald Kroodsma The Singing Life of Birds (Houghton Mifflin, 2005) Figure 11. Marsh Wren males duel with their large repertoires. Il ustrated are 3 representative song types from a repertoire of more than 100 song types, and representative transition flow diagrams of song types from two (kHz ) 7,5 frequency (kHz 7,5 5,5 3,5 1,5 Avian Bioacoustics A tribute to Luis Baptista Handbook of the Birds of the World, Volume 6 (Lynx Edicions, 2001) males at Turnbul National Wildlife Refuge, Washington, USA. Each circled number in the flow diagram represents a different song type, and each arrow represents one transition that the male sang, with multiple arrows showing favorite sequences. Neighboring males learn the song sequences from each other, and when countersinging can choose to reply with the same type, to advance to the next song type expected in the sequence, or to ignore the neighbor altogether (after Verner 1976). 1 second 7,5 5,5 3,5 1,5 frequency ( 5,5 3,5 1,5 Audio playback experiments • Role of bird songs in advertising territory • Krebs (1977) Male European great tits sing to advertise – Male European great tits sing to advertise territory – When males are removed from their territories, other males move in Audio playback experiments • Role of bird songs in advertising territory • Krebs (1977) But: when great tit songs are broadcast by
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2010 for the course PSY PSY 3364 A taught by Professor Dr.peterassmann during the Spring '10 term at University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson.

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ancom_lec15 C - Oct 18, 2010 PSY 3364 Animal Communication...

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