ancom_lec16 C - PSY 3364 Animal Communication King...

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1 PSY 3364 Animal Communication Oct 20, 2010 ht p:/ King Penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata ht p:/ Subphylum Vertebrata Class Aves Order Sphenisciformes Family Spheniscidae Genus Aptenodytes Species patagonicus ht p:/ Territorial signals Territory – in ecology, any area defended by an organism or a group of similar organisms for such purposes as mating, nesting, roosting, or feeding. Home range – Area occupied by an animal which is not necessarily defended Bird song and territory defense • Competition for limited resources • Signal to keep intruders out Long distance threat signa • Long-distance threat signal • Effectiveness of a threat depends on the likelihood of escalated aggressive behavior if not heeded • advertisement, threat, and attack. Audio playback experiments • Role of bird songs in advertising territory • Krebs (1977) Male European Great Tits sing to advertise – Male European Great Tits sing to advertise territory – When males are removed from their territories, other males move in. Neighbors vs. strangers Neighbors : territory holders with demonstrated fighting potential, with established track record Strangers : Some are floaters or non-owners searching for a vacant territory An owner has more to lose from an invading floater than the other way around. Important to distinguish neighbors from floaters
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2 Ranging Ranging is the ability to tell how far away the source of the signal is . • Cues include: amplitude declin (inverse square law amplitude decline (inverse square law) degradation in signal characteristics (distortion with increasing distance) scattering, interference and echoes caused by obstacles, blurring of signal onsets and offsets by reverberation, etc. Songbird repertoire size • Why do birds differ in repertoire size? Anti-habituation hypothesis Anti-exhaustion hypothesis Anti exhaustion hypothesis Beau Geste hypothesis ranging hypothesis escalation-level hypothesis Song mimicry • Northern Mockingbird ( Mimus polyglottos) • 200 or more different song songs • Repertoire increases annually • Audible up to 400 meters • Territory: 100 m x 100 m • Audience: up to 100 birds (Kroodsma, 2005) Design rules for territorial signals Design Feature Rule Visual Auditory Olfactory Range marks Territory boundary Posture, color patch Loud calls Scent deposit along border Amplitude Marks along Locatability
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ancom_lec16 C - PSY 3364 Animal Communication King...

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