11 - Lecture 11: Bioinformatics Friday, August 20, 2010 Due...

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Lecture 11: Bioinformatics Friday, August 20, 2010
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Due to the increasing amount of sequence information that is being generated, an important emerging Feld of biology is BIOIN±ORMATICS, which uses computational approaches analyze sequence and structural information. Friday, August 20, 2010
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As genes and proteins get sequenced, this information gets deposited in one of several databases that can be readily accessed through the web Friday, August 20, 2010
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By far, the most useful resource is the NCBI website (National Center for Biotechnology Information, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ ), which gives you access to a search engine for biomedical- and biological-related scientiFc literature, protein and nucleic acid sequences, alignments of proteins and protein families, select textbooks (for instance, a good reference textbook is Biochemistry, by Berg, Tymoczko and Stryer*, whose entire contents is available online— including practice problems and answers!) and protein structures. *±or instance, a good additional, easy to read selection on Bioinformatics can be reached via this address: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi? +Exploring+Evolutionexploring+evolution+AND+stryer%5Bbook%5D+AND Friday, August 20, 2010
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One very powerful bioinformatics tool is to ALIGN two or more protein sequences to determine if they share HOMOLOGY. The greater the degree of identity between two proteins, the more likely it is that they are related: the identity of two proteins decreases as a function of evolutionary distance (PAM units) In reality, proteins observed in nature evolve more slowly than the theoretical model (above) PAM: percentage accepted mutations Friday, August 20, 2010
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Identity can be calculated (0.99) N , where N is the evolutionary distance between two proteins in PAM units Friday, August 20, 2010
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11 - Lecture 11: Bioinformatics Friday, August 20, 2010 Due...

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