Midterm 1 Solutions

Midterm 1 Solutions - 1. Choose four of the following...

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1. Choose four of the following terms. Concisely explain what each one means in a few sentences. Covalent bond Isotope Percent yield Titration Redox reaction Solute TC Ionic interactions A mole Limiting reagent Yield Solvent TD Molecule 4 Marks each A covalent bond is a shared electron pair between two atoms (not elements!). Covalent bonds point is specific directions to give molecules their shapes. Ionic interactions are governed by the Coulomb law, which states that ions with like charge will repel each other, and those with opposite charge will attract each other. Unlike covalent bonds, ionic interactions don’t have a direction. (Note that the transfer of electrons from one atom to another describes a redox process). Isotopes of an element have the same atomic number (number of protons) but have different numbers of neutrons. Hence they have different mass numbers. A mole is an Avogadro’s number of things. Percent yield is the yield over the theoretical yield, times 100%. It is typically less than 100%, as side or incomplete reactions reduce the yield. The limiting reagent is the reactant that is fully consumed before the other reactants. Once it runs out, the reaction stops and no more product can be made. The amount of the limiting reagent determines the theoretical yield. A titration is an analytical process where an analyte is reacted with a titrant (not an acid and a base!). The moles of analyte present can be found, since at the equivalence point the titrant fully reacts with the analyte, according to the stoichiometric ratio of the titration reaction. The yield is the amount product produced. Can be measured in moles or grams. In a redox reaction one atom undergoes reduction (gains electrons) and another is oxidized (loses electrons). The solvent is the liquid in which solutes are dissolved to make a solution. Solute is the chemical (often a solid) that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution.
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TD means “to deliver”. This kind of glassware is designed to pour out the indicated volume of liquid. TC means “to contain”. This kind of glassware is designed to hold the indicated volume of liquid. A molecule is a given set of atoms (not elements!) held together in a specific shape by covalent bonds. 2. Using the periodic table to the right, answer the following questions. a) In what way are elements A and B related?
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Midterm 1 Solutions - 1. Choose four of the following...

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