chapter_09au_Pre2_part2 - Overlap and Bonding We think of...

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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Overlap and Bonding We think of covalent bonds forming through the sharing of electrons by adjacent atoms. In such an approach this can only occur when orbitals on the two atoms overlap.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Overlap and Bonding Increased overlap brings the electrons and nuclei closer together while simultaneously decreasing electron- electron repulsion. However, if atoms get too close, the internuclear repulsion greatly raises the energy.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals But it’s hard to imagine tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, and other geometries arising from the atomic orbitals we recognize.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals Consider beryllium: In its ground electronic state, it would not be able to form bonds because it has no singly-occupied orbitals.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals But if it absorbs the small amount of energy needed to promote an electron from the 2 s to the 2 p orbital, it can form two bonds.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals Mixing the s and p orbitals yields two degenerate orbitals that are hybrids of the two orbitals. These sp hybrid orbitals have two lobes like a p orbital. One of the lobes is larger and more rounded as is the s orbital.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals These two degenerate orbitals would align themselves 180 ° from each other. This is consistent with the observed geometry of beryllium compounds: linear.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals With hybrid orbitals the orbital diagram for beryllium would look like this. The sp orbitals are higher in energy than the 1 s orbital but lower than the 2 p .
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals Using a similar model for boron leads to…
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals …three degenerate sp 2 orbitals.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals With carbon we get…
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals …four degenerate sp 3 orbitals.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals For geometries involving expanded octets on the central atom, we must use d orbitals in our hybrids.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals This leads to five degenerate sp 3 d orbitals… …or six degenerate sp 3 d 2 orbitals.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals Once you know the electron-domain geometry, you know the hybridization state of the atom.
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding 1.sp What is the hybridization of sulfur in SO ?
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding 1.sp What is the hybridization of nitrogen in HNO ?
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding 1.sp
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Which kind of hybridization is about the central atom in PCl 5 ?
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Geometries and Bonding The electron-domain geometry of a sulfur- centered compound is trigonal bipyramidal. The hybridization of the central sulfur atom is
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This note was uploaded on 11/12/2010 for the course CHE 107 taught by Professor Yok during the Spring '10 term at Middle East Technical University.

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chapter_09au_Pre2_part2 - Overlap and Bonding We think of...

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