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slides_6 - Environmental Regulations Intended and...

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Environmental Regulation’s Intended and Unintended Consequences Demand for regulation Supply of regulation Chapter 5 of Green Cities External validity and lessons for LDCs
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Hilton and Levinson (1998) Why as nations get richer do they “get the lead” out by passing unleaded gasoline laws? What is an unintended consequence of allowing lead in gasoline?
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Demand Factors Under What conditions will a government enact credible laws to reduce pollution? Income (the J Curve) Education --- patience, information processing, seeing consequences and links Media coverage and information Observing success in other nations Shocking events in new, culture, books (Silent Spring and DDT) Social contagion and social interaction (Inconvenient Truth)
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Supply Factors The results at the national level are reflected in such measures as the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI), which was designed by researchers at Columbia and Yale. The 2005 ESI ranks Finland, Norway, Uruguay, Sweden, Iceland, Canada and Switzerland at the top with respect to its overall sustainability criteria among 146 nations, while relegating Haiti, Uzbekistan, Iraq, Turkemistan, Taiwan and North Korea to the bottom of the list. The United States was ranked 45th. This relatively low score was mainly due to its high level of greenhouse gas emissions. One component of the ESI ranking is “Environmental Governance”. Based on this criteria, the top five nations are: Finland, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland and Japan. The United States is ranked 14th.
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