chemistry_chapter1notes

chemistry_chapter1notes - Chapter 1: Matter, Measurement,...

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Chapter 1: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving 1.1 Atoms and Molecules Atoms – submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter Molecules – two or more atoms joined in a specific geometrical arrangement 1.2 The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Hypothesis – a tentative interpretation or explanation of the observations Experiments – highly controlled procedures designed to generate such observations. The results of an experiment may support a hypothesis or prove it wrong—in which case the hypothesis must be modified or discarded Scientific law – a brief statement that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones o Ex. law of conservation of mass , which states, “In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed.” Scientific theory – a model for the way nature is and tries to explain not merely what nature does but why o Ex. atomic theory – it explained the law of conservation of mass, as well as other laws and observations of the time, by proposing that matter was composed of small, indestructible particles called atoms. Since these particles were merely rearranged in chemical changes (and not created or destroyed), the total amount of mass would remain the same. 1.3 The Classification of Matter Matter – anything that occupies space and has mass The States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, and Gas Solid matter: Atoms or molecules pack close to each other in fixed locations Atoms and molecules vibrate but do not move around or past each other Fixed volume and rigid shape May be: o Crystalline – atoms or molecules are arranged in patterns with long-range, repeating order Ex. table salt and diamond o Amorphous – atoms or molecules do not have any long-range order Page | 1
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Ex. glass, plastic, charcoal, and butter Liquid matter: Atoms or molecules pack about as closely as they do in solid matter, but they are free to move relative to each other, giving liquids a fixed volume but not a fixed shape Assume the shape of their container Gaseous matter: Atoms or molecules have a lot of space between them and are free to move relative to one another, making gases compressible Always assume the shape and volume of their container Classifying Matter According to Its Composition: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Pure substance – a substance composed of only a single type of atom or molecule (ex. Distilled water) o Element – a substance that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances (ex. Helium) o Compound – a substance composed of two or more elements in fixed, definite proportions (ex. Water) More common than elements (on Earth) Mixture – a substance composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules that
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chemistry_chapter1notes - Chapter 1: Matter, Measurement,...

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