chemistry_chapter3notes

chemistry_chapter3notes - Chapter 3: Molecules, Compounds,...

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Chapter 3: Molecules, Compounds, and Chemical Equations 3.1 Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water Hydrogen (H 2 ) is an explosive gas Oxygen (O 2 ) isn’t a flammable gas but must be present for combustion to occur 3.2 Chemical Bonds Chemical bonds – the result of interactions between the charged particles—electrons and protons—that compose atoms 2 types: o Ionic bonds – occur between metals and nonmetals—involve the transfer of electrons from one atom to another Metal transfers one or more of its electrons to the nonmetal Metal atom becomes a cation Nonmetal become an anion o Covalent bonds – occur between two or more nonmetals—involve the sharing of electrons between two atoms The shared electrons interact with the nuclei of both atoms, lowering their potential energy through electrostatic interactions with the nuclei arrangement in which the electron lies between the two protons has the lowest potential energy because the negatively charged electron can interact with both protons 3.3 Representing Compounds: Chemical Formulas and Molecular Models Chemical formula – indicates the elements present in the compound and the relative number of atoms or ions of each normally list the more metallic (or more positively charged) elements first, followed by the less metallic (or more negatively charged) elements Types of Chemical Formulas Empirical formula – gives the relative number of atoms of each element in a compound ex. Hydrogen peroxide = HO Molecular formula – gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule of a compound ex. Hydrogen peroxide = H 2 O 2 Page | 1
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structural formula – using lines to represent the covalent bonds, shows how atoms in a molecule are connected or bonded to each other ex. Hydrogen peroxide = H¬O¬O¬H Molecular Models Ball-and-stick models – represent atoms as balls and chemical bonds as sticks o how the two connect reflects a molecule’s shape o The balls are normally color-coded to specific elements. For example, carbon is customarily black, hydrogen is white,
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chemistry_chapter3notes - Chapter 3: Molecules, Compounds,...

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