chemistry_chapter7notes - Electric field – a region of...

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Unformatted text preview: Electric field – a region of space where an electrically charged particle experiences a force Magnetic field – a region of space where a magnetic particle experiences a force he Rydberg Equation – an equation to predict the wavelengths of the hydrogen emission spectrum here is the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation emitted in vacuum is the Rydberg constant (1.097 x 10 7 m-1 ) and are integers that repres e total probability of finding an electron within a thin spherical shell at a distance r from the nucleus hydrogen atom) and then decreases again with increasing r ×volume of shell at r Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom 7.1 Quantum Mechanics: The Theory That Explains the Behavior of the Absolutely Small Quantum-mechanical model – a model of the atom that explains how electrons exist in atoms and how those electrons determine the chemical and physical properties of elements 7.2 The Nature of Light Light was found to have many characteristics in common with electrons • Wave-particle duality of light – some properties of light are best described by thinking of it as a wave, while other properties are best described by thinking of it as a particle The Wave Nature of Light Electromagnetic radiation – a type of energy embodies in oscillating electric and magnetic fields • A wave composed of oscillating, mutually perpendicular electric and magnetic fields propagating through space • Amplitude – the vertical height of a crest (or depth of a trough) o Determines intensity or brightness—the greater the amplitude, the greater the intensity • Wavelength ( λ ) – the distance between adjacent crests (or any two analogous points) o The most energetic waves have large amplitudes and short wavelengths • Frequency ( ν ) – the number of cycles (or wave crests) that pass through a stationary point in a given period of time = ν cλ c is the speed of light For visible light, wavelength (or frequency) determines color: • White light, produced by the sun or a light bulb, contains a spectrum of wavelengths (and therefore colors) • Red light – longest wavelength of visible light (750 nm) • Violet light – shortest wavelength (400 nm) The Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic spectrum – the continuous distribution of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves, which are arranged in order of their frequencies or wavelengths Page | 1 • Gamma ( γ ) ray – form of electromagnetic radiation with the shortest wavelength o Produced by the sun, other stars, and certain unstable atomic nuclei on Earth o Excessive exposure can damage biological molecules • X-rays – pass through many substances that block visible light o Too much exposure increases cancer risk • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation – light waves that consist of both UVA and UVB rays from the sun o Excessive exposure increases the risk of skin cancer and cataracts and causes premature wrinkles • Visible light – electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation...
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This note was uploaded on 11/12/2010 for the course CHEM 111 taught by Professor Prutzman during the Spring '10 term at Lehigh Carbon CC.

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chemistry_chapter7notes - Electric field – a region of...

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