lec01-3.win10 - Outline Overview of the history of...

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1 UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 1 Brief History of Cognitive Psychology Psychology 355: Cognitive Psychology Instructor: John Miyamoto 01/06/2010 Note: This Powerpoint presentation contains macros that I wrote to help me create the slides. They aren’t needed to view the slides. You can disable or delete the macros without any change to the presentation. UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 2 Outline • Overview of the history of cognitive psychology • Donder's method of subtraction • Helmholtz's idea of unconscious inference • The behaviorist hiatus Overview of History of Cog Psych UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 3 Overview of the History of Cognitive Psychology • Early precursors to cognitive psychology o Aristotle, Plato – epistemology, theory of ideas and their relation to human action • Experimental psychology begins in 19th century Germany o Franciscus Donders (response time analysis, method of subtraction) o Hermann von Helmholtz (perception, unconscious inference) o Hermann Ebbinghaus (experimental study of memory) o Wilhelm Wundt (analytic introspection, analysis of conscious experience) • Behaviorist hiatus in America: roughly 1920 – 1960 • During the behaviorist period (1920-1960), cognitive psychology continued to be studied in Europe. • Revival of cognitive psychology in America (1950 – 1970) • 1970 – present: Cognitive psychology plays a major role in psychology pretty much everywhere in the world Donder’s Mental Chronometry UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 4 Early Cognitive Psychology: F. C. Donders (1818-1889) • Mental chronometry: Measuring how long a cognitive process takes • Reaction-time (RT) Experiment (a.k.a. response time experiment) Measures interval between stimulus presentation and person’s response to stimulus • Method of Subtraction: Used to infer how long a mental process takes when the process is not directly observable. o Method of subtraction is an example of a behavioral research method . Definition of Simple RT and Choice RT
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2 UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 5 Method of Subtraction Applied to the Comparison Between Simple and Choice Reaction Time • Simple RT task: Participant pushes a button quickly after a light appears • Choice RT task: Participant pushes one button if light is on the right side, and a different button if light is on left side • Donder’s goal: To measure how long it takes a person to decide which button to press in the choice RT task. Diagram Showing Time Course of Simple RT UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 6 Diagram of Cognitive Processes During Simple RT • Measurement of Simple RT • RT = (Response Completion) – (Stimulus Onset) Time Diagram Showing Time Course of Choice RT UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 7 Time • Measurement of Choice RT • RT = (Response Completion) – (Stimulus Onset) Diagram of Cognitive Processes During Choice RT
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This note was uploaded on 11/13/2010 for the course PSYCH 355 taught by Professor Miyamoto during the Winter '08 term at University of Washington.

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lec01-3.win10 - Outline Overview of the history of...

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