lec01-4.win10 - Outline Finish: Brief History of Cog Psych...

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1 UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 1 Finish: Brief History of Cog Psych then Basic Neural Information Processing Psychology 355: Cognitive Psychology Instructor: John Miyamoto 01/07/2010 Note: This Powerpoint presentation contains macros that I wrote to help me create the slides. They aren’t needed to view the slides. You can disable or delete the macros without any change to the presentation. UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 2 Outline • Overview of the history of cognitive psychology • Donder's method of subtraction • Helmholtz's idea of unconscious inference • The behaviorist hiatus • Revival of cognitive psychology: 1950's & 1960's -------------------------------------------------------------- • Basic concepts of neural information processing Finished Yesterday The Behaviorist Hiatus UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 3 Behaviorist Hiatus – Roughly 1920 - 1960 • John Watson o Influenced by positivist philosophy. The goal of science is to predict whatever is observable. o Therefore we should eliminate assumptions about whatever is not observable. (Questionable) o Consciousness is not observable. Eliminate it from psychological theory. Anti-introspectionist. o Opposed to theories that postulated unobserved psychological processes like ideas, attitudes, beliefs, etc. • Clark Hull – Stimulus/Response (S/R) learning model. • Edwin Guthrie • B. F. Skinner – Reinforcement theory • Behaviorism was an American approach to psychology – not so influential in Europe and elsewhere. Cognitive Psychology During the Behaviorist Period UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 4 Cognitive Psychology During the Behaviorist Period • William James (1842 – 1910; cognitive psychology) • Jean Piaget – genetic epistemology • Lev Vygotsky – cognitive development and education • Sir Frederick Bartlett (constructive memory processes) • Gestalt psychology – Kurt Lewin, Wolfgang Kohler • The beginnings of the computer revolution. Alan Turing, Norbert Wiener, John von Neumann Behaviorism Loses Its Grip on Psychology
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2 UW: Psych 355, Miyamoto, Win '10 5 Behaviorism lost its grip on American psychology during the 1960's. Why did this happen? • Problematic results: o Learning without responding o Learning without reinforcement • Behaviorism couldn’t explain the behavior that people wanted to understand, e.g., language, perception, attention, reasoning. (Lashley, Chomsky, Miller- Galanter-Pribram). • Alternative approaches came along that looked more promising. o Structural models, e.g., transformational grammar, genetic epistemology. o
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This note was uploaded on 11/13/2010 for the course PSYCH 355 taught by Professor Miyamoto during the Winter '08 term at University of Washington.

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lec01-4.win10 - Outline Finish: Brief History of Cog Psych...

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