Quiz1_SolutionKey1 - “wand u.—‘—-w September g 2009...

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Unformatted text preview: “wand. u...—‘—-w-. September g 2009 Answer the following questions on sustainable development and systems. These questions are based on your readings and class materials. (10 points) A a. in your own words, explain sustainable development to the mayor of your city. (2 pts) Prat/rat m»; let (in. at 957?: {iii-7 is: F‘firfimi c- ‘ '* "if 1:: 9f ct 5“ WW , \J i “*4 - A‘INQW'IW J M L‘ ’3 <5? 5 “We ”be 3 i. a m iii-3:?» -::r i 53¢? innit? W N.) ‘ l I h ' b. What are some of the impacts of unsustainable development in the world today? Give at least three examples (total), one that affects high-income countries predominantly, another that affects iow-income countries, and a third that affects both. (3 points) - l, M a .. , . (r .4 ‘ ‘ Wow-‘6. T”"$§Wt<n~fln Atrium Emit cert-ma! o (Jfé’rfiinagflm ‘3}:‘1 f' 9 .n W J L“ p f1! Gift! “‘7’ i1 #15!” ”ffflfui/ £5. {2 {.4 5L3“. 9 (H (73: " . r a m.) 3w"- HM‘S - we -“ _‘ V . i: ,c ‘ L E6 ‘ a“; k?“fi‘iv'\/ Cam-,‘flx‘fhft‘ {Kata/fritf‘f/ rl’é’é’ifl’i‘fi filial/hf“ W i. _ V _ sud . “Elm: (U f {Ni if om {hurrim‘tj u’P‘lli‘il-‘fa a‘nr Loki/3"“ (“lbw-1;” firing. . v . ' 1363' ‘ I ; .- - ‘ . . ‘5 4- .1 gt. 1-; in (j 056:1 {Matting M'Hfl'nj 3%! W 16%.” l I” l "”2 “4""; o! ”’1?” -.',‘.-r.:2r (“T-j E c. identify a civil engineering “system" and explain how two characteristics ofthis system are linked with sustainable development (2 points) ‘ [S [1’ka 9v CU: z/{Z‘rf‘té’cffi 3.2 knit-{time ‘— ”if?“ Cd’l frat”. F (iii-4f 3'54. {4:55} r a} I} “-4: ' \j r ‘ . .x hi; he) afltmfll “adjfif‘ffi-“wq‘jnfi £1353? n-‘ié‘lfittl’ " 'i‘: l‘“€!\&{5{13"qfi f‘nrftwnyr'.-r_¢{ .nnrmn‘mr 53/142113 (is 3m (, {932:3 (,2:- l'aéw r’r‘IWr/ll' if .V. ' . .J ,,_ T , , .L -. it mnét ~5t at: w, iW-‘i «51w wit?— “Wit?!" '6‘” {m- sumac (as: P(,.,-..:f. {fix-C. "(MC an ij'inghtfi ~59 3th97 We 5(3)“. 1;” Jg‘é‘épfljy r‘3‘_{(_nf- (“fi’nit’ i r” 1. ’fl'" be” may d. Identify three population issues that make it important for civil engineers to pay ’ ’ attention to sustainable development practices? (3 points) ‘ Marc: P? fish: Quit; ”3 t" “L {F ‘ Iii-"m .‘M-«iu when. (MOLE t {457416.761“(shims 1/11"” - u . Ir . ., , , 1‘ . a . .. i. “4' * L‘s-P €.: enigma? "finial; é «2 ”5‘ “‘“W‘ jailiwf‘h‘ ‘"" ”W“- , if? a . . \ .r . ' Maj .3 9.; fits with?! ad "I Farm-s»: .2 (for: (iir‘r‘. "cfrti a” ., s ”or ; ;;‘ E . ,. I” limit ‘w l ‘ " ' ' New". . I i ‘ J ‘53“: a“ ‘4 i X J ‘5 v v' K - g F ( .J ' = N b r n“ is, may; gm few {J V 1 2. On March 17, 2009, Atlanta Mayor Shirley Franklin announced the City of Atlanta municipal carbon footprint. The total greenhouse gas emissions for Atlanta city government in 2007 came to 540,000 metric tons, which established a carbon footprint baseline for Atlanta government, A which aims to reduce emissions 7 percent by 2012. Answer the following questions. (10 points) 64 ‘9 a. The carbon footprint is a performance measure that can be used to evaluate progress toward sustainability. What is a performance measure? fidlo A {MHHQQU‘ ”graded“ ed"1“‘t*r'0n of: a $Wf'm3 [Mfwmnrc b. Give three other examples of performance measures that can be used to measure a city’s progress toward sustainability. . UVaicr u5¢ by fk; tjiy i Numb" 0: LEE!) "(Uh-Ir“! Bullldlfflj (005?de J AMWOHM' fi‘L “I‘M pr’fidlurfcfi 5 Lily c. Your readings distinguish between good and bad growth. What is the difference between good and bad growth? ,- 844 growth t5 4"“. (ti—Mauls, Oi» nl'l’nmi pfipf'f‘fll at 9. rah -- i" . a . {9+ (“n/w b wfi’afiet’l “AV HM” an (“Ff/Tl] 5‘1“ 41.5 Ull'eS Jfflrdcfi genitalia“ Mikcr fh/m‘ 10159? “AA OW”; ii: Ii _. ”j d. Give one example ofa poor measure of sustainability .2' Lflcakk Saudi"! {0F LAC" “'WD‘C> AO’Jn/ir necrwmrf y reflur Pepkigih‘pn Chfir‘rflt Jtv'iépmcq F. 3. Answer the following questions a. Describe the difference between a stochastic versus a deterministic system {2 points) Shogkasrk [admits an Effmmlr 9‘ r‘quOrnneSS Wy- Jrferfi'. I ’WSfI'c éygsfem; art- Lens-law or fixed. ./ b. Describe the difference between an open and closed system. Wha’ftype of system do civil C. engineers typically encounter in practice? (2 points) A" apt“ 5 yjfcm tiff/oué Afld 0“? of “H Syn—m {-yf’l'Muy Cncahnizr (”(65435 09' (45’:ng and vflfiffirfljj pinto t‘ (”.594 $y5hm 60995 “0*. £23,!”fo Open S/VSKEMS \/" List three system characteristics and why each characteristic is important to your group project topic. (6 points) Praia" l-Opl‘d: Chejafgflalu Bit); (Bracldc. r PMfPMbL -- {kt lands; ifnki l‘ic Delmar fmr'n‘sh/d ‘9/1/1'54 3”tu old at! a l "t '( 3 plum“ havi'ul for errrs an! MP,” ’1' ( fl, ' a n R f' If MOM QCHSS J an F ‘ a ‘1 ‘0 'Compt’omls.’ "HR 50ch f4 V"; romp“): ml k 52a) and cars “w“ musr {Hr 5’35th fin!“ J’Jf'n “"5 P’WU ”w («Haw of”: Pr) t}- r j Kn‘ «5. we“ ‘5 olr'ffurm‘ ”We" 0" J‘N'nnf JUmM H 1w, rLt‘hkujafi't “mt L/J‘ch "A” ”("c'J {'(W natf‘y‘n‘ "$1”er FAFJUA “it 54 - 1 afirhcik 5’: 1+ nub Oaks ‘lf’oeal "Ianoh‘urascs f—rqwl M “It \// i-‘Mpft GSJ'I/l— and Lag, C(rtfi... 4. Answer the following questions on Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). EIA is discussed in your readings by Erickson: ”Overview of Environmental Impact Assessment.” (5 points) a. What is an EIA? A rape” "Ninja!!! bythNEioA The“ MW“ flue, envlmnwcnm lmpfic” OI 5! (350F515!!! Pffj'ccl'i #35 +1 'tk.W‘1i'£‘\ (th‘ronAml‘J a( L .‘pfiuhccd 4W1 “it imparin 0‘ my impaf'l‘l an f‘rszenn'mflmmfi b. In class, Dr. Meyer presented an example of an environmental analysis for the Florida Key Deer. Describe two characteristics of this effort that reflect a "systems" perspective on civil engineering. The FDOI’ 119(ng .‘nsmz Mal +u 5,31%? w. ‘ . ( flu imjr. envifaan‘tniq! SysF-th, AM; puinHm by Full “Y (VEOtUn flffi‘h’fl f‘wnf tLi’ 51””:- M-thiw 2}} to WnU‘J‘rl‘f' WWW 4A0] f’lwr‘n; wfinpwzs 4,:- allrmal-m ““5 r‘” ”’“6'w.lilg. 3 L - f r u 'C “‘50 “La“ *0 l+ (oh’ld 5f Mjffk’ ll'o fuhlfl‘ F} 'prU \'i’\"e|\3!\ (r-vi‘fl)“m,nlfll (j c. What two alternatives are required bylaw in an ElS? TL“. (3(9ka flC-fnpn and 1'")! “0"(fihl0rl C"’;(rnn+:’/t List two Qrincigles and four canons of the ASCE Code of Ethics (5 points) Pfr'hqpl55" 'WOrk {M “at Hewitt! a; Human amt rkc 8n - Maa'n’mim and in.“ NH. tcfalair‘tn 5“ M Canons: ICreaH. for kummfs wglqu, @115? NI'I’QI. KL jfn'it'f‘n (hf-J ' Build pio'gt‘bsiorul (4r tr Lust"! 0n mar”- 6. You have been asked by your state department of transportation (DOT) to analyze the snow and ice removal strategy for the state. Because of public concern for using salt on the highways, the DOT is looking for a substitute mixture that can replace salt during the winter months. It turns out that a good substitute is a mixture that contains at least 20% sodium, at least 33.3% sand, and at least 33.3% but no more than 50% potassium. The DOT expects that it will use 450 tons of the substitute mixture this coming winter (and thus must have 450 tons in storage). One of the ways of developing this new mixture is to use different combinations of existing compounds that have these three components in them. Obviously, the DOT wants to do this in the least costly manner possible. The following table shows the composition of three compounds that could be mixed together to form the desired mixture. Remember the resulting mixture must satisfy the minimum (and maximum in the case of potassium} percentages specified. If the DOT can purchase compound 1 for $500 per ton, compound 2 for $525 per ton, and compound 3 for $550 per ton, formulate a linear program that will determine the number of tons of each compound the DOT should purchase. 5 3 . Note: When I say there must be at least 2093'sand in the mixture, this means that the total amount of sand coming from all three sources divided by the total number of tons must be at least 30%. Formulate an LP model for this problem (this means objective function and constraints). (5 points) E _ . . r 4g, . (T‘Qg-ffi'dt “."(r'flfln‘ .544 : ‘Sboxf 4 I. 3 min l“ m w - snark-550x}, P.‘ . kl l (.- paling-1" ,1x, 4 .4314.) . é‘K' ‘I.1‘X.+.Hy3 7. The tables on the next two pages show the answer and sensitivity reports for the problem above. Answer the following from these reports. (5 points) (a) What is the optimal number of tons of each compound thatshould be purchased by the DOT? (C‘anqunvl ‘ .I ‘4 2r? :5: rat. ‘1 (b) Given that the optimum minimal cost of the objective function is $235,714, if the supplier of compound 3 comes to you and says that the price per ton of compound has to increase by $20 per ton due to increased labor costs, will this change your decision to purchase 171.4 tons of compound 3? Explain why or why not (in other words how would you estimate the change from the sensitivity report, if you can)? Is there a change in the total cost to the DOT? If so, what is this new cost? “1'5 ‘4.)09n1 {fifth}. I' i‘ h t Egan ,1. will new it“ (c) Constraint 1 represents the minimum percent of sodium that must be present in the mixture (0.20 x 450 total tons = 90 tons). Suppose your materials engineer tells you that the mixture can be successful with a minimum of 10% sodium instead of 20% (this equates to a 0.10 x 450 total tons = 45 tons) or a decrease in the constraint of 90—45 = 45. Wi | the optimal values of the X’s stay the same as before? Why or why not? Will there b change in the objective function? 1“ ”NW“ Valera ,,,,.h (in if?“ 3‘“ hfl "-1 i :34” 51”th 'f’ 4'( Law”)- at fin if «L '3 ’ .2 (31‘ .1! .,O Fir . ~ +‘jt 05f((fi/C Vsi'm (rm J (5 (d) Your materials engineer tells you that the minimum amount of sodium 20% {or 0.20 X 450 = 90 tons of the total tonnage), which is constraint 1, can be ‘ ' reased to 30% (or 0.30 x 450 = 135 tons). Thus, the difference in the actual change int of this constraint is 135 —- 90. = 45 tons. Will this increase in constraint 1 changeihe .val of the objective function? If so, by how much? 'I.‘ " ‘ _; . ‘5“) 13 WlJ‘l (In ifflf-Dwflhft 49«t§.?:~\,gst,; Microsoft Excei11.0 Answer Report Worksheet: [LP Solutions.xls}Sheet’l Report Created: 971512009 7:44:05 PM Target Cell (Min) MKS-hem fiuww- mm» at mmmm mum»: 1m .m WWW bWtMWMMMHW lmniumflvwammwfi Mmawmwwwawww Cell Name Original Vaiue Final Value Whvdk mam». mam mm“;- aswwmw vakmm sotwmnmmsu-‘Aaatww. .mwgnmmwweq- mummmm Wmm\ a» $F$2O Optimized objective function value— - x3 235714 2857 235714. 2857 WE mama WWWWWMWEN MWMMWmnwama -m..- \4 Iv'W wwmmmww .Wn .mmwmmm yum.- WM Adjustable Cells mem mmm-m mmwm uwm.wmm mmmwuwmmmw WMMWM mm M. Mm Cell I Name Original Value Final Value rmmwmwmmm WWIngummfiflwWWmmmmwwuw-W WWW»: WWW «www- $D$17 X1 192. 8571429 192. 8571429 $E$17 X2 85. 71428571 85 71428571 $F$17 x3 1714285714 1714285714 Constraints lee-.mwhma» w-wmmm-M wmmbw W Ahm‘lmwm‘ Mapmmmmmmmmz-MWMKM hhmwmmwm$mfiawfiwwmmwwmummmwr ”mm Wmfimwmmmrm‘w’wflw « mu .MAE MI» Cell Name Cell Value Formula Status ”Slack‘ mg. m Wmmzu Mwmn .anwzw-HWA mwwm rum» hmmmmmwmm. smmummwmzmflmmmmmmmmmr “mam 3gp§2§ Sodium ConstraintVaéue 90 $13525>: $F$25 Bind'_g $70526 Sand Constraint Value $0327 Low P i 39 naVaIue 150 $D$27>= $I=$27”3Indmg 150 $D$28<= $F$28 Not Bindé n9 ‘5b529lmTot fily“ constraint 450 513529: $F$29 Not Binding Z0 mwmmmmummamrw‘mlmmwmmmmmmwwmmmflflum‘wflnfiw #meWWJYWmW-Wmmmw 1uWwMme WWA r—memémnwmwm Microsoft Excel 11.0 Sensitivity Report Worksheet: [LP Solutions.xls]$heet1 Report Created: 9/15/2009 7:44:06 PM Adjustable Cells wan-mm wxwmwmma mmmxawa wurmmwhwnwvwmmmxmlwuw “MW-in omwn Wiwwwwkhmvwmwmvnkmmmhw ”5.2.515...in “mum-WV;«WWH Final Reduced Objective Allowable Allowable Cell Name Value Cost Coefficient increase Decrease wwxmmmigmim wwW‘M—f ynewuv-Wmn EWuMW-M m nan—MMAWV- am mmmmm‘m m: Wmmwm .mmmau um ‘Imwmwmi $D$17 x1 192. 8571429 0 "500 2 50000001 $E$fl7 X2 85. 71428571 0 52 $5517 x3 - 5 . 7 1714285714 __ 5 _ o_ 7 550 25 00000051 Constraints Wmmwwmmfirmwfl nmw mm»; IWSWWWWMNWW'IWM‘W mewmmzmamm flm-WA‘MSJMkauhwflwtmofim‘h‘wnfinmmWsz-mww‘fl-W(Om Final Shadow Constraint Allowable Ailowabie Cell Name Value Price R H. Side Increase Decrease wnwma-mmommwuwm ”In“. muww Maveem wswmmlwmmmliwwmhwnusmmx was-mm. wwwgwm WWWLW Mmmmmvm“\mmmrnummmmflwflwflwwi wen-n 1-,: “gamma-mu.- 71‘qu w,» 5.4..“ 5D$25 Spdium Constrainthlgem 90 35 71428573 90--- M6 2Q" 15952.5 Sand ConstraintyeiUe 210 o 1'56"" B13327” 12622953551511me WM59511375'T:211:1-.1-‘03-9.31-53211-1926352 iif:.ifj-i.:3:5§-:..-.--..-.-.- -..-..---...1-§9.-. .--- .---m--. .9-- --.- ...-.- .-.-. 2.2.9...- -.-..--.-. ...1 5120 75 450 4571428571 450 75 50 umWnah/Wm‘a WM WMW<MWWWXWVMMH§MMWI€JM§Mfi‘leg‘xWé-W‘)Wflmvm Mmmum wwwmnms‘mw‘momiammwhuwmww wmfixauwamm—mm M 11am! W‘kFQ)WpNM/len‘ldlkw 8. You have been asked by the Panama Canal Authority to analyze the performance of a lock in the Panama Canal. In particular, the Authority is concerned about the increasing size of the ships that are likely to use the locks, such that only one mega container ship would be able to go through a lock at a time (unlike currently where more than one ship might squeeze into the lock). It takes 30 minutes for the lock to service a ship and be in a position to service the next ship. You know from Panama Canal data that ships arrive at the lock every 45 minutes. The lock operates 24 hours a day. You also know from the data that the arrival rate can be considered a Poisson distribution and the service times can be represented by an exponential distribution. Answer the following questions. For this uestion ou must consider arrival and service r ' ' points) (a) What is the probability that there are two ships in the system? Peri-if (1-2): .W o 93 r 2 ‘" “LE-3 ~.___..5 : l 33 :L ' ‘ 1 (c) What is the average time a ship must wait before it enter the lock? 2. L r4 my: Hat'iig~32) ' '0 L” “1““ (d) What is the average time a ship spends in the 5% Hi): Formulae = p / (1-9) EiLq) = 92 / (1-9) ElTs) = 1/ nil-p) W l = M Hit“ (it- Mi ...
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