Chapter 12 Outline

Chapter 12 Outline - Chapter 12 Schizophrenia Schizophrenia...

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Chapter 12: Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a disorder in which personal, social, and occupational functions deteriorate as a result of disturbed thought processes, language disturbances, distorted perceptions, unusual emotions, and motor abnormalities. Many people with schizophrenia experience psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations), which represent a loss of contact with reality. The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three categories: positive, negative, and psychomotor, and usually appear in late adolescence or early adulthood. The DSM-IV-TR identifies five types of schizophrenia: disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual–each of which is marked by different predominant symptoms. While biological explanations have the most empirical support and have been backed by the results of twin and adoption studies, most clinicians agree that schizophrenia can probably be traced to a combination of factors. The diathesis-stress theory explains schizophrenia as a combination of genetic precursors and psychosocial stressors that join to elicit symptoms. While people with schizophrenia used to be committed to public mental hospitals, the last four decades have seen a trend of deinstitutionalization and the development of community-based treatment. This has included the development of community mental health centers, short-term and partial hospitalization, and the use of supervised residences (halfway houses) in an attempt to help the patient develop skills needed to adjust to community life and to avoid rehospitalization. A primary emphasis of community treatment has also been occupational training in sheltered workshops, where patients are taught job skills that can assist with autonomous living and enhance self-esteem. The promise of community treatment, however, has fallen short of expectations, as federal
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This note was uploaded on 11/13/2010 for the course PSY PSY M08 taught by Professor Tennant during the Summer '08 term at Moorpark College.

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Chapter 12 Outline - Chapter 12 Schizophrenia Schizophrenia...

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