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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Handouts Chapter 1 Handouts Abnormal Psychology: Past and Present 0. What is abnormal psychology? 0. The field devoted to the scientific study of _______________ to ________ , ________ , ________ , and ________ abnormal patterns of __________ 1. Workers may be: 0. ______________________________ 1. ______________________________ What Is Psychological Abnormality? Although many definitions have been proposed, none is universally accepted Most definitions share some common features… 2. “The Four Ds” 0. ______________________________ 1. ______________________________ 2. ___________________________ 3. ______________________________ Deviance From what? 3. From behaviors, thoughts, and emotions considered normal in a specific place and time and by specific people 5. ______________________________ 4. Stated and unstated rules for proper conduct in a given society or culture 5. Examples? Judgments of deviance also depend on specific circumstances (i.e., _________________) 2. 3. 4. 6. Distress 1. According to many clinical guidelines, behavior must be _______________ before it can be labeled abnormal 7. Not always the case 4. Examples? Dysfunction 2. Abnormal behavior tends to be __________ – it interferes with daily functioning 3. __________ has an influence on determinations of dysfunction, as well 4. Dysfunction alone does not necessarily indicate psychological ___________ Danger 5. Abnormal behavior may become dangerous to oneself or others 8. Behavior may be car___________________________________________ 6.. Although cited as a feature of psychological abnormality, _______________________ 6 __________________________________ The Elusive Nature of Abnormality 7. Ultimately, a society selects the general criteria for defining abnormality and then uses those criteria to judge particular cases 9. _______________ argues that, because of the influence of society, the whole concept of mental illness is invalid 5. Deviations called “abnormal” are only “___________” 6. Societies use the concept of mental illness to _________________ who threaten social order The Elusive Nature of Abnormality 8. Even if we agree with the concept of abnormality, it is often applied inconsistently 10. Examples: 9. In short, although abnormality generally is defined as behavior that is deviant, distressful, dysfunctional, and dangerous, these criteria often are vague What Is Treatment? 10. Once abnormality is determined, clinicians attempt to treat it 11. Treatment (or therapy) is a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior 11. Despite the clarity of the definition, clinical therapy is surrounded by confusion and conflict: 12. Lack of agreement _________________ 13. Lack of agreement about ______________________ 14. Lack of agreement about ______________________ 15. Are clinicians seeking to ___________? ___________________ 16. Are sufferers patients _________________ or ______________________ What Is Treatment? 12. Despite these disagreements, most clinicians agree that large numbers of people need therapy 17. Research indicates that therapy often is helpful How Was Abnormality Viewed and Treated in the Past? 18. In any given year in the US, ___% of adults and ___% of children display serious psychological disturbances and are in need of treatment 19. In addition, most people have difficulty coping at various times in their lives 20. Is this the fault of modern society? 7. Not entirely; historical records demonstrate that every society has witnessed psychological 7. abnormality and had its own form of treatment… 13. Much of today’s thinking about abnormal psychology is built on past approaches and ideas, rather than being a rejection of these ideas 14. Theories and themes about abnormal psychology occur again and again; progress has not been a steady movement forward Ancient Views and Treatment 15. Most historians believe that prehistoric societies regarded abnormal behavior as the work of evil spirits 16. The cure for abnormality was to force the demons from the body through ________ and ________ 21. May have begun as far back as ____________________ 17. _________ B.C. to A.D. ___________ Greek and Roman Views and Treatments 18. Many psychological disorders were identified 19. Hippocrates believed that abnormality was a ________________________________________
22. He looked to an unbalance of the ___________________
23. His suggested treatment that attempted to “rebalance” 24. A.D. _______________ ___________________ Europe in the Middle Ages: Demonology Returns 25. With the rise of clergy came the _______________ 8. Abnormality was again seen as a conflict between _______________ 9. The incidence of abnormality increased dramatically as outbreaks of mass madness occurred 26. At the close of the Middle Ages, demonology began to lose favor again The Renaissance and the Rise of Asylums 10. Earlier (largely discarded) treatments such as __________________ reemerged 20. A.D. 1400 – 1700 the body 21. German physician _________________ believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as 22. Patient care improved as demonological views declined 27. Weyer is considered the founder of modern study of __________________ 23. Shrines devoted to loving care of the mentally ill were established and one, at ___________ 23.
became a community mental health program of sorts 24. This time also saw a rise of asylums – institutions whose primary purpose was care of the mentally ill 28. The intention was good care, but because of overcrowding they became _______________________ The Nineteenth Century: Reform and Moral Treatment 25. As 1800 approached, asylums were reformed into places of care emphasized humane and respectful treatment 11. In the US, Benjamin __________ (father of American psychiatry) and Dorothea _________(Boston schoolteacher) were the primary proponents of moral treatment 30. By the end of the nineteenth century, there was a reversal of the moral treatment movement because of several factors: 12. _________________________________________ 13. _________________________________________ 14. _________________________________________ 31. Longterm hospitalization became the rule once again The Early Twentieth Century: Dual Perspectives 26. As the moral movement was declining in the late 1800s, two opposing perspectives emerged: 32. The Somatogenic Perspective 15. ______________________________________ 33. The Psychogenic Perspective 16. ______________________________________ The Early Twentieth Century: The Somatogenic Perspective 34. Two factors responsible for rebirth of this perspective: 29. _________ (France) and ___________(England) advocated moral treatment – care that responsible for mental dysfunction 18. Several biological discoveries were made, such as the link between untreated syphilis & general paresis 35. This approach, while creating optimism, lead to few positive results until the 1950s, when a number of effective medications were discovered The Early Twentieth Century: The Psychogenic Perspective Current Trends 27. Have we come a long way? themselves 17. Emil _________________ textbook argued that physical factors (like fatigue) are 36. ________ of people interviewed believe that people bring mental health disorders upon 37. ________ consider mental health disorders to be caused by sinful behavior 37. 38. However, the past 50 years have brought major changes in the ways clinicians understand and treat abnormal functioning How Are People with Severe Disturbances Treated? 28. 1950s – _________________ discovered 39. _____________________________ 40. _____________________________ 41. _____________________________ 42. This change in care was not without problems 29. These discoveries led to _________________________________ and a rise in outpatient care
How Are People with Severe Disturbances Treated? 30. Outpatient care is now the primary mode of treatment 43. When patients need greater care, they are usually given shortterm hospitalizations or outpatient psychotherapy and medication in community settings 19. Unfortunately, there are too few community programs available; only ______________ of those with severe disturbances receive treatment of any kind How Are People with Less Severe Disturbances Treated? 31. Since the 1950s, there has been an increase in outpatient care 44. Although this type of care was once exclusively private psychotherapy, it now includes various settings, as well as specialty care 32. In any given year, __________ adults receive some type of mental health care A Growing Emphasis on Preventing Disorders and Promoting Mental Health 45. The community mental health approach has given rise to the prevention movement 20. Many of today’s programs are trying to: 6. Correct the social conditions associated with psychological problems 7. ________________________________________________ and promotion of positive feelings, traits, and abilities 46. Prevention programs have also been energized by the rise of _________________ – the study The Growing Influence of Insurance Companies 47. Today the dominant form of insurance coverage is the managed care program – a program in which the insurance company determines key care issues 21. Approximately 75% of all privately insured persons in the U.S. are enrolled in managed care programs 22. At issue are the duration of therapy, the push for medication treatment, and the relatively low rates of reimbursement for care What Are Today’s Leading Theories and Professions? What Are Today’s Leading Theories and Professions? 48. One important development in the field of abnormal psychology is the growth of theoretical perspectives, including: 23. P__________________
24. B_________________ 25. B_________________ 28. S___________________ 49. No single perspective dominates 33. In addition to multiple perspectives, there also are a variety of professionals now available to offer help to people with psychological problems 34. One final development in the study and treatment of mental disorders is a growing appreciation for ___________________ 50. Clinical researchers attempt to examine which concepts and theories best ________ and ________ abnormal behavior, which ________ are most effective, and what kinds of _________ may be required What Do Clinical Researchers Do? 26. C_________________ 27. H_________________ 35. ____________________ is the key to accuracy in all fields 51. Particularly important (and challenging) in the field of abnormal psychology 52. Clinical researchers face certain challenges that make their investigations particularly difficult: 29. Measuring unconscious motives 30. Assessing private thoughts 31. Monitoring mood changes 53. Clinical researchers must consider cultural backgrounds, races, and genders of those they study 54. Clinical researchers must follow the _____________ to ensure that their subjects are not harmed 55. Clinical researchers try to discover laws and principles of abnormal psychological functioning: 32. Search for nomothetic understanding 8. _____________________________ 33. Generally do not assess, diagnose, or treat individual clients 34. Use the _____________________ to pinpoint relationships among variables 9. They systematically ____________ and _____________ information through careful _________________ 35. Use three methods of investigation to form and test hypotheses… The Case Study The Case Study 56. Provides a detailed, interpretative description of a person’s life & psychological problems 57. Can serve as a source of new ideas about behavior 36. Freud’s theories based entirely on case studies 58. May offer ______________ for a theory 59. May challenge a theory’s assumptions 60. May inspire new therapeutic techniques 61. May offer opportunities to study ______________ 62. Has limitations: 37. _____________________________ 38. _____________________________ 10. Has low internal validity 39. _____________________________ 11. Has low external validity 63. These limitations are addressed by the two other methods of investigation… The Correlational Method & The Experimental Method 36. Do not offer richness of detail 37. Do allow researchers to draw broad conclusions 64. Typically involve observing many individuals 65. Researchers apply procedures ______________ 40. Studies can be replicated 66. Researchers use ______________ to analyze results The Correlational Method 38. Correlation is the degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other 67. Measures the strength of a relationship 39. The people chosen for a study are its _______ ____________ 40. The direction of a correlation (relationship) is important 68. Positive correlation = variables change in the _____________________ 69. Negative correlation = variables change in the _____________________ 70. Unrelated = ___________________ 41. ___________________________ 41. The magnitude (strength) of a correlation is also important 71. High magnitude = variables that vary closely together 72. Low magnitude = variables that do not vary as closely together 73. Direction and magnitude of a correlation are often calculated statistically 42. Called the “correlation coefficient” 12. Sign (+ or ) indicates direction 13. Number (from _____________ to ___________________) indicates magnitude 14. 0.00 = no consistent relationship 14. 15. +1.00 = perfect positive correlation 16. 1.00 = perfect negative correlation 74. Most correlations found in psychological research fall far short of “perfect” 42. Correlations can be trusted based on _____________________ 75. How likely is it that the observed correlation occurred by chance? 43. Advantages of correlational studies: 76. __________________________________ 77. __________________________________ 44. Difficulties with correlational studies: 78. Results do not _________ a relationship 45. Two special forms of correlational study: 79. Epidemiological studies 43. Reveal the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a particular population 17. Incidence = number of new cases in a given period 18. Prevalence = total number of cases in a given period 80. Longitudinal studies 44. Observe one sample of participants on many occasions over a long period The Experimental Method 81. An experiment is a research procedure in which a variable is manipulated, and the manipulation’s effect on another variable is observed 45. Manipulated variable = ___________________ 46. Variable being observed = ___________________ 82. Allows researchers to ask questions such as: Does therapy X reduce symptoms of disorder Y?
47. Causal relationships can only be determined through ___________ 83. Statistics and research design are very important variable that may also be affecting the dependent variable 49. Three features are included in experiments to guard against confounds: 19. The control group 20. Random assignment 21. Blind design 46. A ______________ is a group of participants who are not exposed to the independent variable, but whose experience is similar to that of the experimental group 84. By comparing the groups, researchers can better determine the effect of the __________________ 47. Rules of statistical significance are applied 48. Researchers must eliminate all confounds – those variables other than the independent 48. Researchers must also watch out for differences in the makeup of the experimental and control 48. groups 85. To do so, researchers use _________________ – any one of a number of selection procedures that ensures that every participant in the experiment is as likely to be placed in one group as another 50. Examples: _________________________ 86. A final confound problem is __________ 51. To avoid bias by the participant, experimenters employ a “ _________ ,” in which participants are kept from knowing which condition of the study (experimental or control) they are in 22. One strategy for this is providing a ___________ – something that simulates real therapy but has no key ingredient 52. To avoid bias by the experimenter, experimenters employ a “______________ ,” in which both experimenters and participants are kept from knowing which condition of the study participants are in 23. Often used in medication trials Alternative Experimental Designs 49. Clinical researchers often must settle for designs that are less than ideal and include: 87. Quasiexperimental designs 88. Natural experiments 89. Analogue experiments 90. Singlesubject experiments 50. In _________________ , investigators do not randomly assign subjects to groups, but make use of group that already exist 91. Example: children with a history of child abuse 51. To address the problem of confounds, researchers use _________________________ 92. These groups are “matched” to the experimental group based on demographic and other variables 52. In natural experiments, nature manipulates the independent variable and the experimenter observes the effects 93. Example: _____________________________
94. Cannot be replicated at will 95. Broad generalizations cannot be made 53. Analogue experiments allow investigators to freely manipulate independent variables while avoiding ethical and practical limitations 96. They induce laboratory subjects to behave in ways that seem to resemble real life 53. Example: _________________ 54. In a singlesubject experiment, a single participant is observed both before and after manipulation of an independent variable 97. Example: __________________ design 97.
What Are the Limits of Clinical Investigations? 55. Each method addresses some of the problems of studying human behavior but ________________ overcomes them all 56. Best to view each method as part of a team of approaches ...
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