Chapter 2 Handouts

Chapter 2 Handouts - Chapter 2 Handouts Chapter 2 Handouts...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Handouts Chapter 2 Handouts Models of Abnormality 0. In science, the perspectives used to explain phenomena are known as models, or paradigms 0. Each provides _________________________________ that help us explain and interpret observations 1. Helpful because they spell out basic assumptions and set guidelines for investigation 2. They influence what investigators observe, the questions they ask, the information they seek, and their interpretation of that information Models of Abnormality 0. Historically, clinical scientists of a given time and place agreed on a single model of abnormality – a model greatly influenced by ___________________ 1. Currently, there are several competing models of abnormality 1. Why? Each model focuses on one aspect of human functioning and no single model can explain all aspects of abnormality The Biological Model 2. Takes a medical perspective 3. Main focus is that psychological abnormality is an illness brought about by _________________________________ 2. Typically focused on the _______________ How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior? 4. Brain anatomy 3. The brain is composed of ~100 billion nerve cells (called _________ ) and thousands of billions of support cells (called _________ ) 4. Within the brain, large groups of neurons form distinct areas called brain ___________ How Do Biological Theorists Explain Abnormal Behavior? 0. Brain anatomy and abnormal behavior 5. Clinical researchers have found connections between certain psychological disorders and problems in specific brain areas 3. Example: Huntington’s disease & basal ganglia (forebrain) 5. Brain chemistry 6. Information spreads throughout the brain in the form of _______________ that travel from one neuron to one or more other neurons 7. An impulse is received at a neuron’s ____________, travels down the ____________ , and is transmitted to other neurons through the nerve ____________ 6.. Brain chemistry 6 8. Neurons don’t touch; they are separated by a space (the ____________), across which a message moves 9. When an electrical impulse reaches a nerve ending, the nerve ending is stimulated to release a chemical called a ______________ (NT) 4. Some NTs tell receiving neurons to “fire”; other NTs tell receiving neurons to stop firing 7. Brain chemistry and abnormal behavior 10. Researchers have identified dozens of NTs 5. Examples: serotonin, dopamine, and GABA 11. Studies indicate that abnormal activity in certain NTs can lead to specific mental disorders 6. Examples: depression (serotonin and norepinephrine) and anxiety (GABA), schizophrenia (dopamine) 12. Brain chemistry and abnormal behavior 7. Additionally, researchers have learned that mental disorders are sometimes related to abnormal chemical activity in the endocrine system 8. Hormone release, triggered by a variety of factors, propels body organs into action. Abnormal secretions have been linked to psychological disorders 9. Example: cortisol release is related to anxiety and mood disorders 13. Sources of biological abnormalities – ____________ 10. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, each with numerous genes that control the characteristics and traits a person inherits 11. Studies suggest that inheritance plays a part in mood disorders, schizophrenia, mental retardation, Alzheimer’s disease, and other mental disorders 0. Aren’t able (yet) to identify specific genes 1. Don’t know the extent to which genetic factors contribute to disorders 2. Seems no SINGLE gene is responsible for ____________________ Sources of biological abnormalities – ___________________________ 12. Genes that contribute to mental disorders are viewed as unfortunate occurrences: 3. May be mutations 4. May be inherited after a mutation in the family line 13. Evolutionary theorists argue that we can best understand abnormality by examining the millions of years of human evolution 5. Looking at a combination of adaptive behaviors of the past, genes, and the interaction between genes and current environmental events 6. Example: Fear 8. Sources of biological abnormalities – ____________________________ 14. Infection provides another possible source of abnormal brain structure or biochemical dysfunction 14. Example: schizophrenia and prenatal viral exposure 15. Interest in viral explanations of psychological disorders has been growing in the past 15. decade 15. Example: anxiety and mood disorders Biological Treatments 9. Biological practitioners attempt to pinpoint the physical _________ of dysfunction to determine the course of treatment 10. Three types of biological treatment: 16. _____________________________ 17. _____________________________ 18. _____________________________ Biological Treatments 11. Drug therapy: 19. 1950s = advent of psychotropic medications 16. Changed outlook for a number of mental disorders 20. Four groups of drugs: 17. _____________________________ 18. ______________________ 19. _____________________________ 20. _____________________________ 12. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): 21. Currently experiencing a revival 22. Used for depression when drugs and other therapies have failed 13. Psychosurgery (or neurosurgery): 23. Historical roots in ______________ 24. 1930s = first lobotomy 25. Much more precise than in the past 26. Considered experimental and used only in extreme cases Assessing the Biological Model 27. Strengths: 21. Enjoys considerable respect in the field 22. Brings great relief 23. Fruitful 7. ____________________ 8. Suggests new avenues of research 28. Weaknesses: 24. Can limit rather than enhance our understanding 25. ________________ 25. 26. Evidence is incomplete or inconclusive 27. Treatments produce significant __________ ___________________ The Psychodynamic Model 29. Oldest and most famous psychological model 30. Based on belief that a person’s behavior (whether normal or abnormal) is determined largely by underlying _______________ psychological forces _________________________ 28. Abnormal symptoms are the result of conflict among these forces 31. Father of psychodynamic theory and psychoanalytic therapy: 29. __________________ (1856–1939) How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning? Caused by three ______________ forces: 30. 31. 32. 33. Id – guided by the ______________ Principle Instinctual needs, drives, & impulses Sexual; fueled by libido (sexual energy) Ego – guided by the ______________ Principle Seeks gratification but guides us to know when we can & can’t express our wishes Ego defense mechanisms protect us from anxiety Caused by three UNCONSCIOUS forces: 14. 0. 32. 33. Superego – guided by the ____________ Principle 9. Conscience; unconsciously adopted from our parents 34. These three parts of the personality are often in conflict 34. A healthy personality is one in which compromise exists among the three forces 35. If the id, ego, and superego are in excessive conflict, the person’s behavior may show signs of dysfunction How Did Freud Explain Normal and Abnormal Functioning? 15. Developmental stages 35. Freud proposed that at each stage of development, new events and pressures require adjustment in the id, ego, and superego 36. If successful → personal growth 37. If unsuccessful → fixation at an early developmental stage, leading to psychological abnormality 10. Because parents are the key figures in early life, they are often seen as the cause of improper development 16. Developmental stages 0. 36. _____________ (0 to 18 months of age) 37. _____________ (18 months to 3 years of age) 37. 38. _____________ (3 to 5 years of age) 39. _____________ (5 to 12 years of age) 40. _____________ (12 years of age to adulthood) How Do Other Psychodynamic Explanations Differ from Freud’s? 41. Although current models deviate from Freud’s in important ways, each retains the belief that human functioning is shaped by dynamic (interacting) forces: 38. __________________ 11. Emphasize the role of the ego; consider it independent 39. __________________ 12. Emphasize the unified personality over any one component 40. __________________ 13. Emphasize the human need for interpersonal relationships Psychodynamic Therapies 17. Range from Freudian psychoanalysis to more modern therapies 18. All seek to uncover past trauma and inner conflicts 19. Therapist acts as “______________” 20. Utilize various techniques: 42. ____________________________ 43. Therapist interpretation 41. ___________________________ 42. Transference 43. Dream interpretation 44. Catharsis 45. Working through 21. Contemporary trends: 46. _________________ psychodynamic therapies 47. ________________________ psychoanalytic therapy 44. Strengths: 14. First to recognize importance of psychological theories & treatment 15. Saw internal conflict as important source of psychological health and abnormality 16. First to apply theory and techniques systematically to treatment – monumental impact on the field 48. Weaknesses: 45. Unsupported ideas; __________________ 17. Nonobservable Assessing the Psychodynamic Model 18. Inaccessible to human subject (unconscious) 18. The Behavioral Model 22. Like the psychodynamic perspective, behaviorism is ______________ and is based on the idea that our actions are determined largely by our life experiences 23. Emphasizes __________________ and environmental factors 24. Focuses on how behavior is acquired (learned) and maintained over time 25. Historical beginnings in laboratories where conditioning studies were conducted 49. Several forms of conditioning: 46. Operant conditioning 47. Modeling 48. Classical conditioning 50. May produce __________________ behavior How Do Behaviorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? 26. Operant conditioning 51. Organism “operates” on environment and produces an effect whenever they do so 27. Modeling 53. Individuals learn behavioral responses by observing and repeating behavior 49. ___________________________________ 28. Classical conditioning 54. Learning by __________________ 50. When two events repeatedly occur close together in time, they become fused in a person’s mind; before long, the person responds in the same way to both events 55. Father of classical conditioning: ______________ (1849–1936) 51. Classic study using dogs & meat powder 29. Classical conditioning 56. If, after conditioning, the CS is repeatedly presented alone, it will eventually stop eliciting the CR 52. This process is called ________________________________ 57. Explains many familiar behaviors (both normal and abnormal) Behavioral Therapies 30. Aim is to identify the behaviors that are causing problems and replace them with more appropriate ones 58. May use classical conditioning, operant conditioning, or modeling 31. Therapist is “__________” rather than healer 52. Humans and animals learn to behave in certain ways as a result of receiving rewards 59. Early life experiences important only in providing clues tocurrent learning 59. 32. Classical conditioning treatments may be used to change abnormal reactions to particular stimuli 60. Example: _______________________ for phobia 53. Step­by­step procedure 19. Learn relaxation skills 20. Develop a fear hierarchy 21. Confront feared situations (covertly or in vivo) Assessing the Behavioral Model 61. Strengths: 54. Powerful force in the field 55. Rooted in ___________ 22. Phenomena can be observed and measured 56. __________________ __________________ 62. Weaknesses: 57. ______________ 58. Unrealistic 59. Downplays role of _________________ 23. New focus on self­efficacy, social cognition, and cognitive­behavioral theories The Cognitive Model 33. Proposes that cognitive processes are at the center of behavior, thought, and emotion 34. Argues that clinicians must ask questions about assumptions, attitudes, and thoughts of a client 63. Concerned with internal processes 64. Present­focused How Do Cognitive Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? 35. Maladaptive ______________ is the cause of maladaptive ______________ 65. Several kinds of faulty thinking: 60. Faulty assumptions and attitudes 61. Illogical thinking processes 62. Example: ___________________ Cognitive Therapies 36. People must be taught a new way of thinking to prevent maladaptive behavior 37. Main model: Beck’s Cognitive Therapy 63. The goal of therapy is to help clients ______________ and ______________ their thinking 24. Therapists also guide clients to challenge dysfunctional thoughts, try out new interpretations, and apply new ways of thinking in their daily lives 64. Widely used in treating depression 66. Strengths: 25. Very broad appeal 26. ____________________ 27. Focuses on a uniquely human process 28. Correlation between symptoms and maladaptive cognition 29. Therapies effective in treating several disorders 30. Adapt well to technology 31. ____________________ 67. Weaknesses: 65. __________________ 66. Overemphasis on the present 67. Limited effectiveness 68. Verification of cognition is difficult 32. Precise role is hard to determine The Humanistic­Existential Model 38. Combination model 68. The humanist view 69. Emphasis on people as friendly, cooperative, and constructive; focus on drive to self­actualization 69. The existentialist view 70. Emphasis on self­determination, choice, and individual responsibility; focus on authenticity Rogers’s Humanistic Theory and Therapy 0. Basic human need for ________________________ 71. If received, leads to unconditional self­regard 72. If not, leads to “conditions of worth” 33. Incapable of self­actualization because of distortion – don’t know what they really need, etc. 70. Rogers’s “_________________” therapy 0. Therapist provides unconditional positive regard 34. Both accurate & genuine in reflection (reflective listening) 35. Focus on the “experiencing person” 36. Little research support Gestalt Theory and Therapy Assessing the Cognitive Model Assessing the Cognitive Model 39. Humanistic approach 71. Developed by Fritz Perls 72. Goal is to help clients achieve self­recognition through challenge and frustration 73. Techniques: 73. 73. Skillful frustration 74. Role playing 75. Rules, including “Here and Now” and “I” language Existential Theories and Therapy 1. Psychological dysfunction is caused by self­deception: people hide from life’s responsibilities and fail to recognize that it is up to them to give meaning to their lives 2. Therapy is focused on patient acceptance of personal responsibility and recognition of freedom of action 1. Goals more important than technique 2. Great emphasis placed on client­therapist relationship Assessing the Humanistic­Existential Model 74. Strengths: 76. Emphasizes the individual 77. Taps into domains missing from other theories 37. ___________________ 78. ___________________ 79. Emphasizes health 75. Weaknesses: 80. ________________ 38. Difficult to research 81. Not much influence 82. Weakened by ____________________ ____________________ 39. Changing somewhat The Sociocultural Model 40. Argues that abnormal behavior is best understood in light of the social and cultural forces that influence an individual 76. Addresses norms and roles in society 41. Influenced by sociology and anthropology 42. Argues that we must examine a person’s social surroundings to understand their (abnormal) behavior How Do Sociocultural Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? 43. Focus on: 77. Societal labels & roles 83. Diagnostic labels (example: Rosenhan study) 84. Sick role 78. Social networks and support How Do Sociocultural Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? How Do Sociocultural Theorists Explain Abnormal Functioning? 44. Focus on: 79. Family structure and communication 85. ________________________ = abnormal functioning within family leads to abnormal behavior (insane behavior becomes sane in an insane environment) 40. Examples: enmeshed, disengaged structures 45. Focus on: 80. ________________________________ 86. Set of values, attitudes, beliefs, history, and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to the next 87. “Multicultural” psychology is a growing field of study 46. Focus on: 81. Religion and spirituality 88. For most of the twentieth century, clinical scientists viewed religion as a negative factor in mental health, but this alienation now seems to be ending: 41. Researchers have begun to systematically study the influence of religion and spirituality on mental health 42. Many therapists now address spiritual issues when treating religious clients Sociocultural Treatments 82. May include traditional individual therapy 83. Broadened therapy to include: 89. Culture­sensitive therapy 90. Group therapy 91. Family therapy 92. Couple therapy 93. Community treatment 43. Includes prevention work Assessing the Sociocultural Model 84. Strengths: 94. Added greatly to ____________________ ____________________ 44. Increased awareness of labeling 95. Clinically successful when other treatments have failed 85. Weaknesses: 96. Research is difficult to interpret 45. Correlation ≠ causation 97. Model unable to predict abnormality in ____________________ ____________________ Integration of the Models 86. Each perspective is valuable to understanding abnormal behavior 87. Different perspectives are more appropriate under differing conditions 87. 88. An integrative approach provides a general framework for thinking about abnormal behavior, and also allows for specification of the factors that are especially pertinent to particular disorders 47. Many theorists, clinicians, and practitioners adhere to a ____________________ model 3. Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, biological, developmental, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, social, and societal influences 3. Also popular: 98. ______________________________ 0. Diathesis = predisposition (bio, psycho, or social) 48. Integrative therapists are often called “_______________” – taking the strengths from each model and using them in combination ...
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