Class5_Sensorysystems

Class5_Sensorysystems - Outline Physics of Sound Structure...

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1 Audition and Olfaction Outline • Physics of Sound • Structure of the Ear – Middle ear – Inner ear • Sound Processing – Frequencies – Localization • Deafness Sound • Hearing involves the detection of sound waves • Usually detect sound waves traveling through air – Can also detect sound waves in liquids (swimming/diving) and solids Components of Sound Hertz ( Hz ) – cycles per second of sound wave, perceived as pitch High frequency Low frequency Frequency: Number of pulses per second Components of Sound Amplitude or intensity – perceived as loudness Pure tone – a tone with a single frequency – number of cycles – of vibration Most sounds in the real world are not pure tones, they consist of multiple frequencies Outline • Physics of Sound • Structure of the Ear – Middle ear – Inner ear • Sound Processing – Frequencies – Localization • Deafness Figure 9.1 External and Internal Structures of the Human Ear (Part 1) Middle Ear The middle ear concentrates sound energies. Stapedial reflex: muscles contract and reduce sound’s effect
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2 Inner Ear Inner ear structures convert sound into neural activity. Mammals have a fluid-filled cochlea , a spiral structure with a base and an apex . The base is nearest the oval-window membrane. Figure 9.2 Basilar Membrane Movement for Sounds of Dif erent Frequencies Basilar Membrane Sound waves cause the basilar membrane to vibrate. Different parts respond to different frequencies: • High frequency – activates narrow base of basilar membrane • Low frequency - activates wider apex Inner Ear Components The organ of Corti contains hair cells that bend when the basilar membrane vibrates When hair cells detect a vibration, they stimulate the vestibulocochlear nerve which sends a signal to the brain Progression of Sound Sound wave outer ear middle ear (can be dampened) basilar membrane vibration hair cells detect vibration vestibulocochlear nerve Outline • Physics of Sound • Structure of the Ear – Middle ear – Inner ear • Sound Processing – Frequencies – Localization • Deafness Figure 9.6 Auditory Pathways of the Human Brain What You Need to Know Auditory (vestibulocochlear) nerve brainstem thalamus auditory cortex
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3 Thalamus and Auditory Cortex Neurons within the brain are organized tonotopically.
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course PSC Psychology taught by Professor Cossowings during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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Class5_Sensorysystems - Outline Physics of Sound Structure...

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