Homework 1 answers_BIS103 fall 2010 final

Homework 1 answers_BIS103 fall 2010 final - 1. Compare...

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1. Compare Catabolism and Anabolism A. Define catabolism and anabolism Catabolism: A process where complex organic molecules (fats, carbohydrates, and protiens) are broken down to simpler molecules (lactate, pyruvate, ethanol, CO 2 , H 2 O) Anabolism: A process that constructs larger, more complex biomolecules from smaller molecules B. Name examples of processes for each Catabolism: glycolysis, TCA cycle Anabolism: TCA cycle (there are many more examples for each) C. Name common cofactors for each process Catabolism: NADH, NADPH, FADH2 Anabolism: NAD+, NADP+, FAD D. Name examples of end products for each process Catabolism: pyruvate, ethanol, CO2, etc. Anabolism: fats, carbohydrates, etc. 2.Name a common way an unfavorable reaction can become favorable and name an example where this is seen A common method is coupling reactions Ex : Glucose + ATP b Glucose-6-Phosphate + ADP 3. Describe how enzymes catalyze chemical reactions. What effects do enzymes have on transition states? What effects do enzymes do enzymes have on ΔG difference between substrates and products? Enzymes are increasing the rate of the reaction. They will lower the activation energy, but will have no effect on the ΔG between the substrates and products. 4. What is the difference between ΔG and ΔG°’? ΔG°’ is the Gibbs Free Energy at standard conditions. This means that the temperature is at 25C pressure is 1 atm and all the concentrations of the reactants and products are at 5. What happens if the ΔG difference between E + S b ES is just as large as the ΔG difference between E +S b ES ŧ ?
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If the binding of the enzyme and substrate is so tight that the free energy hole is as deep as the hump from the unbound substrate to ES transition state, then we do not have any acceleration of the reaction compared to the non-catalyzed condition. That means, enzymatic reactions only proceed if substrates bind to enzymes, but not too tightly. 6. Calculate the enthalpy for the full oxidation of propanol. 2 CH3-CH2-CH2-OH + 7 O2 b 6 CO2 + 4H2O Using the bond energies given in lecture ΔH= [ ( (2*2*348) + (2*7*413) + (2*358) + (2*463) ) + (7*495)] – [ (6*2*799) + (4*2*463)] ΔH = -1011 kJ/mol 7. For a reaction A b B with ΔH= 4,000 J/mol and ΔS= -400 J/mol, will the reaction be spontaneous or not? ΔG= ΔH-TΔS ΔG= 4,000 J/mol -298K(-400 J/mol) ΔG= 123.2 kJ/mol The reaction is not spontaneous 8. For a reaction A+B b C+D, the following equilibrium concentrations have been determined: [A]= 0.2 mol, [B]= 200 mmol, [C]=1200 *10^-6 mol, [D]=0.12 mol. What is the difference in the standard free Gibb’s Energy? ΔG= -RTlnKeq ΔG= (8.315J/mol K)(298K) ln [(1200 x 10 -6 )(0.12)/(0.2)(0.2)] ΔG=13.94kJ/mol
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Homework 3 Answers 1a. NADH + H + +1/2O 2 -> N b. Δ E ° ’ = 0.32 + 0.82 = 1.14 c. Δ G ° ’ = (-2)(96.48 kJ V -1 mo 2. D-Mannose
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course BIS 103 taught by Professor Abel during the Fall '08 term at UC Davis.

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Homework 1 answers_BIS103 fall 2010 final - 1. Compare...

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