Art Hist 007 Final Notes

Art Hist 007 Final - 1 ? 4,5,6 Shamanism is the ancient universal tradition whereby personal and tribal healing and empowerment is nurtured

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1. What is the function of art in shamanistic religions? Explain and give at least 3  specific examples from different cultures. 4,5,6  Shamanism   is the ancient universal tradition whereby personal and tribal healing and  empowerment is nurtured, supervised and accomplished through the special skills and  services of a charismatic individual. This shaman may be male or female. In shamanism,  one enters an altered mental state—typically by using drums or rattles to create a sound  field that changes consciousness.  The altered state, called a  shamanic journey,  is used to  gain help and wisdom. It is called a journey because the experience is one of going  someplace.   In   the   journey   the  shaman  encounters   helping   spirits .   These  spirits   are  experienced as a kind of consciousness that does not exist in a body.  The spirits provide  help and guidance when properly approached. the   shaman   can   transcend   normal  human consciousness and travel among different cosmological planes. As an intermediary  wise one   is guardian of the tribe's  psychic and ecological health and welfare. All over the world, shamans encountered in the  last 200 years have functioned in the same basic manner using similar techniques.  The primary purposes of shamanic tradition are (a) to promote and increase order, health,  wealth and happiness of the individuals and the whole tribe, (b) to instill a common vision with  individual motivation, (c) to appease the ancestors and protect against evil influences (demons  the soul-rituals of birth, marriage and death, and conducts the annual tribal ceremonies and  community sacrifices. These seasonal festivals promote harmony and balance within the tribe,  between men and women, and with the natural elements, the plants and the animals. Various   art   forms   were   developed   by   shamans   to   create   a   receptive   atmosphere,   a  supranormal context for spiritual healing rituals. They are also used as sensory triggering  mechanisms to expand consciousness and/or induce shamanic trance states (both personally  and for the group). Fundamental elements of shamanism:  Everything can be communicated with if approached  properly. Every human being has helping spirits, even if they are not aware of it. True power 
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course CHEM 1A taught by Professor Okamura during the Fall '08 term at UC Riverside.

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Art Hist 007 Final - 1 ? 4,5,6 Shamanism is the ancient universal tradition whereby personal and tribal healing and empowerment is nurtured

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