Phys 003 HW3

Phys 003 HW3 - Phys 003 HW3 1. Layers of the solar interior...

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Phys 003 HW3 1. Layers of the solar interior (not the solar atmosphere), from center to the surface of the Sun: -core: energy generated by nuclear fusion (15 million K) -radiation zone: energy transported upward by photons -convection zone: energy transported by rising hot gas -photosphere: the “visible surface of the Sun” (6000K) where photons can freely escape into space 2. Why protons tend to repel one another, and what is the key to getting them to stick together: Protons (+) repel one another since opposite charges attract and like charges repel. The strong force which binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei is the only force in nature that can overcome the electromagnetic repulsion between two positively charged nuclei. This strong force overpowers electromagnetic force over very small distances between particles. So the key to nuclear fusion is to push the positively charged nuclei close enough together for the strong force to outmuscle electromagnetic repulsion. High temperatures help nuclei collide at high speeds and come close together. 3. In the proton-proton chain, four hydrogen nuclei are combined to obtain one helium nucleus. Why this process produces energy: [nuclei: plural of nucleus] [4 H = individual protons] [1 Helium = 2 protons, 2 neutrons] a nucleus = 1 proton, 1 neutron Fusion of hydrogen into helium generates energy b/c a helium nucleus has a mass slightly less than the combined mass of 4 Hydrogen nuclei. So, when 4 Hydrogen nuclei fuse into a helium nucleus, a little bit of mass disappears. The disappearing mass becomes energy in accord w/ Einstein’s formula E = mc 2 . The amount of mass (left over from 4H) that disappears becomes energy. Dividing mass loss by original mass
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Phys 003 HW3 - Phys 003 HW3 1. Layers of the solar interior...

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