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Lesson_5_Deductive_and_Inductive_Arguments

# Lesson_5_Deductive_and_Inductive_Arguments - Deductive and...

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Unformatted text preview: Deductive and Inductive Arguments In this lesson you will learn to distinguish deductive arguments from inductive arguments. Lesson 5 All bats are mammals. All mammals are warm-blooded. So, all bats are warm-blooded. All arguments are deductive or inductive. Deductive arguments are arguments in which the conclusion is claimed or intended to follow necessarily from the premises. Inductive arguments are arguments in which the conclusion is claimed or intended to follow probably from the premises. Is the argument above deductive or inductive? II. Deductive vs. Inductive Arguments • ► Deductive arguments are arguments in which the conclusion is presented as following from the premises with necessity. • ► Inductive arguments are arguments in which the conclusion is presented as following from the premises with a high degree of probability. Examples • A deductive argument: All the pears in that basket are ripe. All these pears are from that basket. All these pears are therefore ripe. • An inductive argument: All these pears are from that basket. All these pears are ripe. All the pears in that basket are, therefore, (probably) ripe. All bats are mammals. All mammals are warm-blooded. So, all bats are warm-blooded. Deductive. If the premises are true, the conclusion, logically, must also be true. There are four tests that can be used to determine whether an argument is deductive or inductive: • the indicator word test • the strict necessity test • the common pattern test • the principle of charity test Kristin is a law student. Most law students own laptops. So, probably Kristin owns a laptop. The indicator word test asks whether there are any indicator words that provide clues whether a deductive or inductive argument is being offered. Common deduction indicator words include words or phrases like necessarily , logically , it must be the case that , and this proves that . Common induction indicator words include words or phrases like probably , likely , it is plausible to suppose that , it is reasonable to think that , and it's a good bet that ....
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Lesson_5_Deductive_and_Inductive_Arguments - Deductive and...

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