Lesson_1_Introduction_to_Critical_Thinking - Lesson 1 :...

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Unformatted text preview: Lesson 1 : Definition and Importance of Critical Thinking A Constructivist Approach to Critical Thinking Introduction to critical thinking: why a constructivist approach? definition of basic thinking skills critical thinking and its importance how to improve critical thinking how What is a constructivist approach? What is the importance of Critical The Powers of Observation The Unkown Bugs Me Why The Constructivist Approach? The ability to recall and explain a concept does not necessarily reflect understanding, nor does it guarantee that students can apply and use the concept in a meaningful way (Julyan & Duckworth, 1996). The goal of education in this new age is to prepare students to use their skills to solve real-world problems The common reason cited is that the learning experience provided in school is so different from the experience in the real world that students cannot transfer the skills between the two environments (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989; Duffy & Jonassen, 1992; Hiebert et al., 1996; Schank, 1997; Sternberg, 1985) What is the constructivist approach? The constructivist teacher sees critical thinking as the heart of the teaching and learning process teacher searches for experiences that will foster the development of alternative and creative solutions to problems, and the development of clear, reasonable, meaningful, and thoughtful communications. Perkins BIG (beyond information given) approach is used I use a brief Power Point use slide presentation in each class period to provide key concepts key The slide presentation is The posted a few days before the class period on Cont…. Class will have a hands on approach Students are expected to explain, explore and Students discuss what is presented discuss Lectures will be kept to a minimum Students must take responsibility for their own Students learning by participating in class discussions, keeping up with reading, following up the guidelines and instructions in assignments guidelines At the end of the class, students work in At groups to go over questions either from a handout or the textbook handout Then each group reports on what they Then discussed; the class as a whole goes over the The Basic Concepts of Critical Thinking The basic concepts of critical thinking are being able to understand or figure out what the problem (or conflict, contradiction) is; to direct thinking to the specific purpose of solving the problem; understanding the frames of reference or the points of view involved; identifying and understanding the underlying assumptions; identifying and understanding the basic concepts and ideas that are being used; citing evidence, data, and reasons and their interpretations; following lines of thought that are advanced; and understanding inferences, implications, and consequences. (Beyer, 1985; Definition of Critical Thinking Reasoning/logic Judgment Metacognition Reflection Questioning Mental Processes Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking is the Critical development of cohesive and logical reasoning patterns. Stahl and Stahl, 1991. 1991. Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking is deciding Critical rationally what to or what not to believe." Norris, Stephen P. "Synthesis of Research on Critical Thinking. Educational Leadership, v 42 n 8 May Leadership 42 1985. 40-45. 1985. Definition of Critical Thinking "Critical thinking is the use of those cognitive skills or Critical strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome. It is used to describe thinking that is purposeful, reasoned and goal directed - the kind of thinking involved in solving problems, formulating inferences, calculating likelihoods, and making decisions when the thinker is using skills that are thoughtful and effective for the particular context and type of thinking task. Critical thinking also involves evaluating the thinking process - the reasoning that went into the conclusion we've arrived at the kinds of factors considered in making a decision. Critical thinking is sometimes called directed thinking because it focuses on a desired outcome." Halpern, Diane F. Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking. 1996. Critical Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking is careful Critical and deliberate determination of whether to accept, reject, or suspend judgment. Moore and Parker, 1994. Moore Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking is "a process Critical which stresses an attitude of suspended judgment, incorporates logical inquiry and problem solving, and leads to an evaluative decision or action." NCTE Committee on Critical Thinking and the Language Attributes of Critical Thinkers Critical thinkers: distinguish Critical between fact and opinion; ask questions; make detailed observations; uncover assumptions and define their terms; and make assertions based on sound logic and solid evidence. Ellis, D. Becoming a Master Critical thinking is a skill It is transferable Adult students can learn Adult to think more critically when they are taught critical thinking skills critical Importance of Critical thinking Critical Thinking is Being Smart Critical Much of our thinking is biased, distorted, Much uninformed, prejudiced uninformed, Our quality of life depends on the quality of our Our thought thought The twin abilities of knowing how to learn The knowing and knowing how to think clearly from the knowing voluminous information available at hand are the most important skills of the 21st century the An educated, thinking citizenry is perhaps the An thinking only way to ensure world peace and adequate ensure resources resources ___________________________________ Paul Richard, Paul Richard, Elder E. 2006. The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts Paul Critical Thinking Standards and Intellectual Traits Critical thinkers routinely apply the intellectual standards to the elements of reasoning in order to develop intellectual traits. Critical Thinking Standards Clarity Accuracy Relevance Logic Breadth Precision Significance Completeness Fairness Depth Logic Does all this make sense together? Does your first paragraph fit in with your last? Does what you say follow from the evidence? Clarity Could you elaborate further? Could you give me an example? Could you illustrate what you mean? Accuracy How could we check on that? How could we find out if that is true? How could we verify or test that? Significance Is this the most important problem to consider? Is this the central idea to focus on? Which of these facts are most important? Fairness Do I have any vested interest in this issue? Am I sympathetically representing the viewpoints of others? Breadth Do we need to look at this from another perspective? Do we need to consider another point of view? Do we need to look at this in other ways Depth What factors make this a difficult problem? What are some of the complexities of this question? What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with? Precision Could you be more specific? Could you give me more details? Could you be more exact? Relevance What factors make this a difficult problem? What are some of the complexities of this question? What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with? The End ...
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