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C101 - Chapter 5 Keywords

C101 - Chapter 5 Keywords - 1 Amino acids Compounds...

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1. Amino acids – Compounds containing nitrogen, which are the building blocks of proteins. 2. Anemia – A deficiency of red blood cells; often caused by insufficient iron. 3. Antioxidants – Substance that in small amounts inhibits the oxidation of other compounds. 4. Artificial fat – Chemicals added to packaged foods to provide the taste and texture of fat but few or no calories. 5. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) – The amount of energy needed per day to keep the body functioning while at rest. 6. Basal metabolism – The minimum amount of energy needed to keep the body alive. 7. Calorie – The amount of energy required to raise 1 g of water from 14.5C to 15.5C. 8. Carbohydrates – The main source of biological energy; biological molecules consisting of one or more sugar molecules. 9. Cellulose – A carbohydrate forming the skeleton of most plant structures and plant cells; the most abundant polysaccharide in nature and the source of dietary fiber. 10. Cholesterol – A fatlike compound occurring in bile, blood, brain, nerve tissue, liver, and other parts of the body. 11. Complex carbohydrates – A class of carbohydrates called polysaccharides; foods composed of starch and cellulose. 12. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – a nucleic acid complex molecular structure occurring in cell nuclei; carrier of the genes; present in all body cells of every species. 13. Dietary supplements – Products that provide one or more of the 40 essential nutrients or nonessential vitamins, minerals, enzymes, amino acids, herbs, hormones, and nucleic acids. 14. Essential amino acids – Amino acids that cannot by synthesized by the body and must be provided by food. 15. Essential nutrients – Chemical substances obtained from food and needed by the body for growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues; not made by the body; must be obtained from food.
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