Psych385 Reading Note Ch4&7 - Chapter 4...

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Chapter 4 Communication of Emotions Five kinds of nonverbal behavior 1) Emblems: nonverbal gestures that directly translate to words. Ex. Peace sign in English speakers. Rubbing fingers “shame on you” Emblems vary in their meaning across cultures. 2) Illustrator: a nonverbal gesture that accompanies our speech, and often makes it vivid and visual. We make hand gestures most of the time when we speak and these gestures slightly precede the corresponding words we say. Ex. Facial expressions, nodding our head, moving our torso 3) Regulators: nonverbal behaviors that we use to coordinate conversation. Ex. People look and point at and orient their bodies toward people whom they want to start talking. They look and turn their bodies away from those they wish to stop talking. 4) Self-adaptor: nervous behaviors people engage in with no seeming intention, as if simply to release nervous energy 5) Displays of emotion: signals in the face, voice, body, and touch that convey emotion. Facial Expressions of Emotion The markers of emotional expression – how do we differentiate emotional expressions from other kinds of nonverbal behavior? 1) Expressions of emotion tend to be fairly brief, typically lasting between 1 to 10 seconds. 2) Facial expressions of emotion involve involuntary muscle actions that people cannot produce when they feel like it, and cannot suppress, even when instructed to do so. Involuntary actions that accompany emotional expressions have a different neuroanatomical basis than voluntary facial actions such as the furrowed brow or lip press. Affective displays, as opposed to mock or feigned expressions, are reliable indicators of the individual’s feeling. 3) Emotional expressions should have their parallels, or homologues, in the displays of other species.
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If emotions derive from our evolutionary heritage, then certain elements of human affective displays should be seen in other species. Studies of the universality of facial expressions Darwin proposed the three principles to explain why emotional expressions have the appearance that they do. 1) Principle of serviceable habits - Expressive behaviors that have led to rewards will re- occur in the future 2) Principle of antithesis – opposing states will be associated with opposing expressions (Embarrassment vs. pride) 3) Principle of nervous discharge – excess, undirected energy is released in random expressions, such as face touches, leg jiggles, and the like. Darwin claims that facial expressions of emotion, as part of our evolutionary heritage, are human universals. Ekman and Friesen distilled Darwin’s theory into two hypothesis. 1) Encoding hypothesis: if emotions are universal, the experience of different emotions should be associated with the same distinct facial expressions in every society, worldwide. 2)
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course PSYCH 3850 taught by Professor Pizarro, d during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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Psych385 Reading Note Ch4&7 - Chapter 4...

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